Bruce D. Meyer and James X. Sullivan
GDP is first and foremost a measure of economic activity and production, and distinct from a measure of welfare, even when narrowly defined as material well-being. Despite this difference, GDP and welfare are not unrelated concepts. Links include the scope of final products that enter GDP and the welfare basis of price indices that are used to compute real GDP. Further, the national accounts systematically link GDP with household consumption and income, the key determinants of average material well-being. Last, in measures of intertemporal social welfare, GDP appears through the need to account for future changes in productivity. This chapter also describes efforts to adjust GDP to gauge welfare more directly but concludes that they have not gained traction because there is no well-articulated theory that would indicate the scope and nature of the required adjustments and because GDP is tremendously useful as a measure of production that needs complementing but not substituting.
Philip N. Jefferson and Kunhee Kim
The economic landscape for global health politics has shifted dramatically over the past generation as private and nonstate actors become increasingly important sources of development assistance for health. The growing economic clout of nonstate actors in the global health space raises questions about the role of states in funding development programs, whether state and nonstate actors work in a complementary fashion, and if there are fundamental shifts in the nature of global governance, legitimacy, and authority under way. This chapter examines the intersection of state and nonstate actors in the economic dimensions of global health governance by examining the different types of nonstate actors getting involved in funding global health programs, the historical experience of nonstate actors in global health, the informal division of labor within global health governance, and potential pathways for facilitating positive economic engagement between state and nonstate actors in the economics of global health.