Enisse Kharroubi and Luiz A. Pereira da Silva
This chapter explores the interrelationships between financial reforms, financial development, and structural change. More specifically, it considers the impact of financial reform on changes in labour productivity and whether liberalizing the functioning of the financial sector and lifting a number of regulations through financial reforms affect structural change and growth. In this chapter, structural change is defined as the contribution of labour reallocation across sectors to aggregate productivity growth and the difference-in-difference methodology is used to compare the evolution of productivity growth—and its different sources including structural change—before and after a financial reform. This evolution is also contrasted with cases in which financial reform is absent. Drawing on a sample of advanced and emerging market economies, the chapter shows that labour productivity accelerates following periods of intense financial reforms. The results generally suggest that financial reforms positively affect productivity growth, in part through the contribution of structural change.
Infrastructure Finance: Mobilizing Long-Term Liability Embedded Funds from International Institutional Investors to Emerging Markets
Kevin Lu and Cledan Mandri-Perrott
This chapter examines the current investment gap in the emerging market and developing economy (EMDE) infrastructure market and proposes innovative solutions to help close the gap and supplement local financing by mobilizing international financial sources to support EMDE projects. The chapter highlights the importance of treating EMDE infrastructure as an asset class and the associated implications to investors, regulators, project sponsors, and other stakeholders. Specific products include project asset-based securities, puttable bonds, programmatic risk guarantees, and securitized infrastructure loan products. The chapter explores potential investor targets for the emerging market infrastructure sector and lays out proposed structures for alternative financing products that engage commercial and multilateral development banks to mobilize additional finance.