Edward R. Kleemans
Human smuggling and human trafficking are phenomena that require different policy responses. This article summarizes data, figures, and patterns concerning human smuggling and human trafficking. In practice, the two different phenomena may be intertwined. Human smuggling basically involves mutual consent between illegal immigrants, their families, and smugglers. In combating human trafficking, involuntary prostitution, helping victims, and prosecuting offenders are key issues. A much discussed element in forced prostitution is the involvement of criminal groups and organized crime. This article is devoted to policy measures and interventions and highlights research priorities for the coming decade. An important area for research is the method by which different prostitution and enforcement policies affect the opportunities and restrictions of various parties: clients, owners, operators, pimps, and prostitutes.
This article briefly maps the domain of tax evasion and draws on the best data available from the United States to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. It reviews the scientific literature on the primary drivers of tax evasion. The nature and extent of tax evasion vary across contexts and time, depending on opportunity to evade tax and the enforcement processes in place. It illustrates tax evasion as a white-collar crime, the substance of which is sometimes poorly specified and changes with economic and social conditions. There is a brief review on the reasons for individuals evading tax and includes discussion about benefits, coercion, obligation, and justice. It considers some of the strategies that governments are using to try to rebuild the effectiveness and integrity of their tax systems to ensure future sustainability.
A. J. G. Tijhuis
Cultural artifacts encompass both antiquities and works of art. Global crime related to cultural artifacts can be divided into several types. This article discusses these types and look at the nexus with other types of crime. It focuses on art crimes that involve cross-border activities. The transnational trade in stolen art and antiquities can be placed in the context of several causal mechanisms and influences. Law enforcement efforts and other policy approaches are also described. Finally, it discusses the policy implications with focus on ratification of multilateral treaties. Police agencies specializing in art theft are few in number and typically small. On the basis of the current body of knowledge about the trade in stolen art and antiquities several tentative recommendations can be offered for both public policies and research in this field.