This chapter examines collaboration—the shared commitment of resources to the mutually agreed aims of a number of partners—and innovation management. Very few organizations, if any, can innovate alone, and collaboration with a select number of partners creates the complementarities necessary for innovation, encourages learning, and better equips organizations to deal with uncertainty and complexity. The chapter explores collaborations between firms and between businesses and universities, government policies for collaboration, the role of brokers, and collaboration and technical standards. The management of collaboration has to deal with the instabilities and tensions inherent in this organizational form. Critical tasks include partner selection and structuring and organizing the collaboration. The chapter argues the advantages of managing collaboration as part of the architecture of innovation ecosystems.
This chapter examines how marketing influences innovation both as a location for as well as a source of innovation within firms. Regarding marketing as a location for innovation, this article examines how firms innovate in terms of: (a) who to market to, specifically, how firms identify new customer segments, choose new target segments, and identify new market spaces; (b) what to market to target consumers, i.e., create new value propositions and innovate around product, price, promotion, and distribution; and (c) how to market to target consumers, i.e., create new ways to deliver the value proposition by reducing fixed costs, achieving economies of scale and exploiting experience curve effects. Regarding marketing as a source of innovation, the chapter examines: (a) how a firm’s market orientation impacts how it innovates, and (b) how, through the inter-functional coordination needed to identify, develop, and deliver new offerings, marketing informs innovation in other parts of the firm such as R&D, HR, and finance.