Siddharth Vedula and Casey J. Frid
Community social capital is increasingly recognized as an important regional resource for spurring entrepreneurial activity. A nascent but growing body of work has begun to link community social capital to entrepreneurship, focusing largely on outcomes such as rates of new venture creation. This chapter emphasizes ways in which community social capital can impact nascent entrepreneurship—namely, the activities founders undertake during the gestation phase before a new venture is created. It examines whether the types of activities undertaken by nascent entrepreneurs vary according to the prevalence (or absence) of community social capital within a region, and concludes with a research agenda for future work in this domain.
Luca Berchicci and Christopher L. Tucci
This article reviews the literature on the (lack of) innovativeness of incumbents both in creating new products and entering new markets. It then presents some non-anecdotal evidence as counter-argument to the alleged curse of incumbency. First, it uses as illustration a cross-sectional study by Chandy and Tellis of a large number of radical product innovations. Secondly, it explores to what extent the story of incumbents' inability to enter new markets matches the history of the computer rigid hard drive industry. This industry is particularly suited to this analysis since its technological generational changes have been described by scholars as ‘radical’ and ‘disruptive,’ and because its history served to inspire Christensen's recent theories.
Michael Lenox and Jeffrey G. York
This article explores the existing literature of the three main classes of drivers: economic incentives, personal motivations, and institutional context. It reviews the existing theories and provides linkages to empirical evidence when possible. It then turns to the future of the field and determines several gaps in the literature. There is a positive relationship between sustainability orientation and entrepreneurial which disappears as participants gain greater business education and experience. Researchers in environmental entrepreneurship have not necessarily relied on research in entrepreneurship to build studies on motivation. Social entrepreneurship refers to entrepreneurial ventures with an explicit social mission. The growing research stream strongly shows that the regulatory and societal surroundings must be taken into account in studying environmental entrepreneurship. Finally, potential directions for future research are explained.
David J. Storey
This article is primarily focused on further developing the theme of the political economy way of evaluating the impact of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) policies. It reaches five key conclusions. First, that evaluation needs to become more central to the policy-making process. Evaluation should not be undertaken solely as a historic accounting exercise to determine whether public money has been spent wisely, although that role is of value. Instead of being, ‘at the end of the line’, evaluation should be used to inform current policy, so that current objectives and targets may be modified in the light of evidence of policy effectiveness. Hence considerations of how policy is evaluated should therefore be incorporated into policy formulation when new ideas are being developed. They could even influence the choices made by governments about how best to engage with SMEs. Specifically, evaluation has to be incorporated as a key element in policy development.
Set within the context of a consideration of the cultural phenomenon of postfeminism, the focus of this chapter is an exploration of the issue of femininity and entrepreneurship, which unlike masculinity and its relationship with entrepreneurial activity, has had relatively little research attention directed at it. Drawing on three postfeminine factors—individualism, choice, and empowerment; notions of ‘natural’ sexual difference; retreat to the home—the chapter identifies four emerging entrepreneurial femininities including individualized entrepreneurial femininity, maternal entrepreneurial femininity, relational entrepreneurial femininity, and excessive entrepreneurial femininity. The chapter argues that these are embedded within a historically specific postfeminist context and incorporate transformations in popularly available understandings of femaleness and women’s positioning in the contemporary world of work.
Erkko Autio and Llewellyn D. W. Thomas
This article considers how the innovation ecosystem concept has been defined to date and then reviews the extant ecosystem literature from two perspectives. First, it provides insights with regard to ecosystem boundaries, structure, and coordination, drawing on ecosystem research as carried out in different empirical contexts. Second, it outlines three theoretical perspectives that can be applied to ecosystem research—notably, the value creation perspective, the network embeddedness perspective, and the network management perspective. Building upon these perspectives the ecosystem concept is then applied to innovation strategy analysis, design, and implementation.
An Intentions-Based Model of Entrepreneurs’ Prosocial Behavior: Why Entrepreneurs may be Exceptionally Generous
Robert A. Baron and Keith M. Hmieleski
Entrepreneurs are widely known for their generosity—voluntarily helping others through financial donations, mentoring, and various forms of community involvement. Such contributions are of great social and economic importance, yet little is known about the reasons that entrepreneurs engage in these actions and what factors may influence the occurrence and magnitude of such behavior. To help fill this gap, this chapter draws upon the theory of planned behavior to develop a model that considers both “why” and “when” entrepreneurs are likely to engage in prosocial behavior. Overall, this work extends the study of entrepreneurs’ efforts to generate value in ways that go beyond that which is directly connected to their activities as founders and leaders of their firms. Several avenues for future research on entrepreneurs’ prosocial behavior are suggested.
In the classical and neoclassical economists' development of the theory of entrepreneurship, little role was allocated to one of the more obvious empirical observations of entrepreneurial behaviour: entrepreneurs have always been highly mobile individuals. This omission may of course have been because the focus of so much attention among nineteenth-century economists was on the dramatic events then unfolding in the industrializing regions of Britain and the United States, before then spreading further afield. This article reviews the literature on immigrant entrepreneurship, focusing especially on recently published investigations of historic cases, before making some theoretical observations and suggesting areas for further research.
Amir N. Licht and Jordan I. Siegel
Recent years have witnessed an emergence of entrepreneurship research in mainstream economics, some of which relates to legal institutions. The current literature exhibits considerable methodological disarray, however. There is no agreed definition for entrepreneurship — for example, whether innovation is a necessary element or whether self-employment suffices, or whether self-employment and ownership of a small business firm are equally entrepreneurial. Likewise, there is often no clear definition of, and distinction among, various social institutions. This makes it difficult to compare and even relate studies to one another. This article adopts an institutional economics approach its basic analytical framework. Social institutions are thus defined as the written and unwritten ‘rules of the game’: laws, norms, beliefs, and so forth. This framework is enriched primarily with insights from cross-cultural psychology, the discipline that specializes in cross-national comparisons of culture.
There is significant and growing interest in entrepreneurship. Notwithstanding this interest, sizable barriers limit understanding of the phenomenon and, by implication, understanding of who is most likely to succeed in it. One fundamental challenge researchers face is the confounded language employed: “Self-employment,” “business ownership,” and various conceptualizations of “entrepreneurship” have often been used interchangeably. This chapter argues that a potentially fruitful basis for predicting the probable form and performance of various start-ups (or newly established business entities) is offered by attending to the social relational characteristics of the individuals or teams engaged in them, including their advisers and investors. Using this approach, novel propositions are proposed that draw and define boundary conditions.
Candida G. Brush
Despite the proliferation of research, the population of women entrepreneurs is vastly understudied. This is surprising considering women are one of the fastest rising populations of entrepreneurs, and contribute significantly to innovation, job creation, and economies around the world. Why are women entrepreneurs comparatively understudied? What have we learned about women entrepreneurs in the past few decades? What are the future research directions? This article addresses these questions. It begins with a brief overview on the extent of research on women's entrepreneurship and considers reasons why they are under-studied. The article also explores empirical findings in terms of similarities and differences between men and women entrepreneurs, then it concludes with suggestions for future research.