Sage Rose and Nicole Sieben
This chapter covers the multiple measures currently used to assess hope theory. Hope, as theorized by Snyder and colleagues, was originally determined to be a global construct measuring agency and pathways toward goal attainment. Using much of the original theory, hope research has expanded, resulting in multiple measures across different applications and domains. By exploring the context specificity, these scales have been shown to consistently predict outcomes across differing domains, supporting the reliability and validity of new hope measurement. It is anticipated that with more specific hope measurement, the more accurate hope assessment and intervention can become. Concepts covered in this chapter include academic hope, math hope, writing hope, work hope, children’s hope, employment hope, and state hope.
M. Robin DiMatteo, Tricia A. Miller, and Leslie R. Martin
This essay examines issues relevant to the accurate assessment of patient adherence to recommendations for health behavior change and/or the management of medical conditions, including long-term chronic diseases. Both conceptual and methodological issues are discussed. The importance of accurate assessment in both clinical practice and research is examined, as well as the consequences of conceptual and measurement biases. The role of assessments of current adherence in predicting future behavior is examined, as is the essential distinction between assessing adherence as a behavior and assessing the predictors and consequences of adherence. The potential challenges of various approaches to assessing adherence accurately are examined, focusing particularly on self-report; measurement scales for adherence are presented; and innovative techniques are discussed for assessing adherence using technologically based formats. Effective communication is emphasized as the most important and salient element relevant to adherence assessment, linking patient adherence assessment with effective communication in the clinical setting.
Happiness research is flourishing. But more articles and more books do not necessarily mean better research and enhanced understanding. Without proper theoretical conceptualizations of the mechanisms that generate a good life, the science of happiness will not move forward. Section II of The Oxford Handbook of Happiness therefore provides an important step towards further clarification of the main ideas, empirical results, and current thinking in happiness research. Written by leading scholars in the field, the chapters sharpen the essential contours in the science of well-being, they point out some bad ideas and dead ends, and offer suggestions as how the thinking in happiness may look like in the years to come.
Alan J. Lambert and Laura Scherer
This chapter offers a historical perspective on the methodological trajectory of social cognition. It begins by considering a number of preliminary issues as they bear on the various definitions of social cognition, with special consideration of how methodological issues figure prominently in those definitions. The chapter next considers the various desiderata in methodology, highlighting cases in which these issues are particularly germane to social cognition. This is followed by discussion of the circumstances surrounding the rise and fall in popularity of some prominent methodological paradigms in the field, including a number of important methodological issues surrounding the emergence of dual-process models. The final section considers some recent critiques of the “social cognition approach,” placing them in a larger historical context and discussing how they overlap with a long-running debate about the value of experimental paradigms in social psychology.
Robert A. Cummins
The term “core affect” was coined by Russell to represent the most basic single feeling. He described it as a non-reflective mood, central to all experienced emotions, and defined within the Cartesian space of the affective circumplex. However, a study in 2004 uncovered a form of “core affect” even more primitive and simple than Russell’s conception of this construct. Studying the affective content of life satisfaction, Davern discovered that 64% of the variance could be accounted for by six affects, later reduced to just three. This combination of content, happy and alert is called homeostatically protected mood. It is now proposed not only as the dominant component of subjective well-being, but also as constituting the affective set-point defended by the processes of subjective well-being homeostasis.
Bradley D. Olson and Leonard A. Jason
This chapter presents participatory mixed methods research (PMMR), based on participatory action research, as an alternative to using solely quantitative or qualitative research methods. This approach is illustrated through research with a community-based network of resident-run, substance abuse recovery homes, Oxford House. Participatory input from community members led to a series of mixed methods investigations, the results of which were more informative, revealing, and relevant than they would have been otherwise. The ultimate goal of PMMR is to gain a greater understanding of multiple phenomena of interest (Rappaport, 1987), multiple truths through dialectical pluralism (Johnson, 2012; Johnson & Stefurak, 2013), greater ecological understandings of pressing societal challenges, and ethically putting that knowledge toward action. Future directions are discussed.
Before we can investigate how happiness is caused and what effects it has, we need to know what it is, and philosophical methods make an important contribution to this investigation of the nature of happiness. Philosophy helps to answer the question “What is happiness such that it is a good thing to aim at in one’s own life or to try to procure for others?” This is what philosophers call a normative question, that is, a question about what ought to be rather than what is, about values rather than facts. In this chapter, the author explains the general methodology and specific methods that some philosophers use in order to answer fundamental normative questions about happiness, well-being, and the goals of life.
Frederick G. Conrad, Michael F. Schober, and Norbert Schwarz
In interpreting survey questions, respondents rely as much on the pragmatics of everyday communication as they do on interpreting syntax or literal meaning. Respondents make inferences about the intended meaning of questions based on a large array of contextual cues, from judgments about the researcher to their sense of how common ground builds up in ordinary conversation and their perception of the actions of interviewers (or automated interviewing systems). How respondents answer questions—the speed and fluency of their answers or requests for clarification—is informative about the accuracy and reliability of their answers. Although survey respondents try to make sense of questions using whatever conversational resources they can bring to bear, researchers are often insensitive to these processes and surprised by their impact.