Assessment of Psychological Acculturation and Multiculturalism: An Overview of Measures in the Public Domain
Ozgur Celenk and Fons J. R. van de Vijver
This chapter presents an overview and content analysis of measures of psychological acculturation (referring to the psychological consequences of prolonged exposure to another culture) and psychological multiculturalism (referring to acceptance and support of the culturally plural composition of institutions such a class or society at large) available in the public domain. This chapter’s presentation deals with the conceptual background (notably the dimensionality of the underlying conceptualization) and formal and psychometric properties of the measures, such as number of items, response anchors, and internal consistencies. A content analysis revealed that measures of acculturation tend to focus on sociocultural acculturation outcomes, followed by acculturation orientations and acculturation conditions. It is uncommon to assess the cultural context in which acculturation takes place. Multiculturalism is usually assumed to be a (conceptually) unidimensional, bipolar construct, although measures have pointed to differential endorsement across domains of multiculturalism. Multiculturalism measures target education, counseling, or society at large. Authors provide an Internet site with an overview of the measures and their characteristics; the measures can be downloaded from the site. This chapter formulates guidelines for choosing or developing measures of psychological acculturation and multiculturalism in the final section.
Leonard Simms, Trevor F. Williams, and Ericka Nus Simms
We review the current state of the science with respect to the assessment of the Five Factor Model (FFM), a robust structural model of personality that emerged from two distinct traditions: The lexical and questionnaire traditions. The lexical tradition is predicated on the hypothesis that important individual differences in personality are encoded as single words in language. This bottom-up tradition has suggested that five broad factors account for much of the personality variation observed among individuals: Extraversion (or Surgency), Agreeableness, Conscientiousness (or Dependability), Neuroticism (vs. Emotional Stability), and Openness to Experience (or Intellect/Culture). The questionnaire tradition emphasizes the measurement of similar constructs, largely through top-down development of measures. We examine the strengths and limitations associated with existing measures of the FFM and related models, focusing on measures rooted in the lexical and questionnaire traditions. We also consider maladaptive FFM measures and conclude by analyzing important issues in the FFM assessment literature.
Andrew C. Cox, Nathan C. Weed, and James N. Butcher
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is the most widely used personality assessment instrument in research and clinical practice. This article orients new users to the test and highlights a number of current issues with the test that may also be of interest to experienced users. It briefly illustrates the development of MMPI-2, from its origins in the University of Minnesota Hospitals to its current form. The article then describes some of its key features and the contributions they make to assessing personality and psychopathology: Validity Scales, Clinical Scales, Content Scales, Supplementary Scales, Personality Psychopathology Five Scales, and Restructured Clinical Scales. It concludes by discussing specific clinical issues related to the use of, and new developments involving, the MMPI-2: assessment of ethnic-minority clients, international adaptation of the MMPI-2, short forms, and computer applications.
The first half of this chapter provides a comprehensive review of research on the role of personality in the functioning of romantic relationships. With the exception of neuroticism and narcissism, which consistently demonstrate negative associations with desirable relationship processes and outcomes, and men's agreeableness, which consistently demonstrates positive associations with such processes and outcomes, own personality, partner personality, and the similarity of couple members' personalities all demonstrate relatively inconsistent associations with relationship processes and outcomes. Given that such inconsistencies likely emerge because of the situation-specific nature of personality, the second section recommends several avenues for future research that take that nature into account, such as examining Trait X Situation interactions, Trait X Trait interactions, and Trait X Partner Trait interactions, and by using more relationship-specific measurements of personality.
Tessa V. West
This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of repeated-measures dyadic data analysis. The chapter begins with an introduction of how different methodological and analytical approaches lend themselves to different theoretical questions in the study of relationships. Issues relevant to the analysis of repeated-measures dyadic data are then introduced, including the issue of distinguishability of dyad members, the nested structure of the data, and the types of variables collected. The latter half of the chapter is focused on data structure, analysis, and interpretation. I demonstrate two illustrative analyses for data that have two repeated measures, and the interest is in comparison between these repeated measures. Two sample analyses are presented using multilevel modeling: one for the analysis of indistinguishable dyads and one for the analysis of distinguishable dyads. The chapter concludes with a discussion of model elaborations and alternative analysis strategies.
Allan R. Harkness
This article describes the connections between basic emotion systems and personality traits. It discusses the fear, anger (or rage), interest (or seeking), and joy emotion systems and links them to personality traits. The article argues that modern psychological findings from behavior genetic, longitudinal, and clinical studies cannot be interpreted without including stable individuating personality traits as causes in psychological theories. Using personality sketches to illustrate behavioral features, it provides an introduction to trait concepts that can enrich clinical case conception. The article looks at the highly available Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) personality trait scales, called the Personality Psychopathology-Five scales, and how they are used in personality assessment.
Edwin I. Megargee
This article examines the issues involved in understanding and, especially, assessing, human aggression and violence. First, it defines aggression and discusses a broad range of factors that influence its assessment, before differentiating individualized from generalized assessments. In the former, the clinician analyzes the factors influencing aggressive behavior in a particular individual. A conceptual framework, the “algebra of aggression,” is offered for analyzing physiological and psychological factors, such as instigation, inhibitions, and habit strength, which influence the relative response strength of different aggressive and non-aggressive acts. Generalized assessments are focused on identifying which members of a group, such as applicants for parole, are most likely to be aggressive. A number of subjective and objective rationally and actuarially derived risk-assessment instruments are described and evaluated.
Joseph A. Banken and Roger L. Greene
This article provides a conceptual framework for the use of self-report measures in assessing alcohol and drug abuse. It reviews the use of self-report measures for assessing a number of different issues, including screening for substance abuse; traditional scales used to identify drug or alcohol abuse; timing of clinical assessment within an alcohol/drug treatment program; specific psychological tests that have particular utility within the area; and identification of patients with dual disorders. The article highlights the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), but the results can be generalized to other self-report measures such as the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale-Revised, Addiction Admission Scale, Addiction Potential Scale, Alcohol Use Inventory, and Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory.
Carlton S. Gass
The measurement of personality and psychopathology in neuropsychological contexts is essential because brain injury affects psychological status, and psychological problems can mimic brain dysfunction. A neuropsychological evaluation is incomplete without an assessment of personality and emotional status. The MMPI-2 is, by far, the most widely researched and clinically utilized test to meet this need. The long history of its use in neuropsychology has generated numerous areas of investigation designed specifically to enhance its application with individuals with known or suspected brain damage. The MMPI-2 content scales, subscales, and RC Scales provide information that helps the clinician refine and supplement interpretation of Clinical Scales. This article reviews special administrative and interpretive considerations that apply in neuropsychological settings. It looks at recent and controversial developments in MMPI-2 research and application.