Paige H. Fisher, Susan Nolan, and Magdalena Galazyn
This chapter offers recommendations, evidence-based when possible, on teaching abnormal psychology in an effective and engaging manner. In the first section, we address issues related to the content of an Abnormal Psychology course. We outline the traditional content areas, as well as current topics that are often underemphasized, such as controversies with diagnosis, and international and cross-cultural issues. In the second section, we provide an overview of pedagogical tools that are particularly relevant for an abnormal psychology course, including the use of case material, role-play, and simulation; we provide suggestions on how to use these tools to create a stimulating and interactive classroom. In the third section, we outline ethical issues that can emerge when teaching abnormal psychology, such as informed consent and classroom management of sensitive topics, and offer suggestions for creating an ethical classroom environment.
Kelly B. Haskard-Zolnierek and Summer L. Williams
This chapter outlines the ways in which depression and other mental health issues influence adherence and health-behavior change. Patient adherence and health-behavior change are defined and described. Common mental health issues including depression and anxiety are described as well as the prevalence of nonadherence to treatment for these conditions. Next, comorbidity of physical and mental health issues are discussed, such as depression co-occurring with various chronic diseases, providing evidence of the effects of mental health on adherence and health-behavior change. The mechanisms for the relationship of mental health to adherence and health-behavior change are discussed through the framework of the information-motivation-strategy model, with adherence being affected due to cognitive factors, motivational factors, and resource-related factors. The chapter concludes with a discussion of what health-care professionals can do to address and reduce this barrier to adherence and health-behavior change.
Jeffrey J. Wilson and Megan Janoff
Adolescents with substance use disorders (SUDs) have the highest proportion of co-occurring psychiatric disorders (CODs) compared to other age cohorts. Externalizing psychiatric disorders, such as conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and attention-deficit disorders, are most commonly associated with adolescent SUDs compared to older adults with SUD. The developmental psychopathology of SUD is reviewed. Categories of COD are reviewed, in turn, beginning with externalizing or disruptive behavior disorders. Disruptive behavior disorders are critical to the developmental psychopathology of adolescent SUD. Studies of co-occurring depressive and bipolar disorders are then considered in detail, examining the relationship between SUD and these particular CODs. Finally, the relationships between anxiety, thought, eating and personality disorders, and adolescent SUD are examined.
Adult Psychosocial Adjustment to Visible Differences: Physical and Psychological Predictors of Variation
Timothy P. Moss and Ben Rosser
Marika Tiggemann and Julie Slevec
Lucie Baker and Eyal Gringart
Claude Richard and Marie-Thérèse Lussier
The clinical settings in which physicians and other healthcare providers must apply their scientific knowledge and technical expertise are diverse and require further adaptive capacities on their part. Thus, the science and the art, although often opposed, are in fact complementary and together define excellence in practice in which the art is not, as stated by Saunders, merely part of the medical humanities but it is integral to medicine as an applied science. This essay addresses those dimensions of medical talk described as the “art” of the medical encounter, how these impact the quality of information gathering and provision, and how, in turn, this influences patients’ understanding and recall. The notion of the “art of information exchange” is reframed as a “medical dialogue” using communication skills and dimensions not traditionally thought of when referring to the “art” of medical information exchange.
Phillip R. Shaver and Mario Mikulincer
Amori Yee Mikami
Norman B. Schmidt
R. Michael Bagby, Amanda Uliaszek, Tara M. Gralnick, and Nadia Al-Dajani
The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and discuss the complex relationship between Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and clinical (Axis I) psychopathology, including depressive, bipolar, anxiety, obsessive–compulsive, eating, schizophrenia and psychotic, trauma and stress-related, and substance use disorders. Considered herein will be the alternative forms of relationship, including vulnerability, common cause, pathoplasty, complication/scar, and spectrum. This chapter will highlight the necessity for well-designed, longitudinal studies aimed at elucidating the complex relationships between the FFM and clinical disorders. Consistent research supports Neuroticism as a vulnerability factor to certain disorders, even sharing genetic etiology. However, there are also important contributions for each of the other four domains. The majority of this research is in the area of mood and anxiety disorders. Expanding these studies to include other forms of psychopathology could help identify common personality vulnerabilities to psychopathology, as well as unique predictors of certain constellations of symptoms.
Leslie R. Martin
Nonadherence represents a significant challenge not only to personal health and well-being but also to the health-care system as a whole. The Information-Motivation-Strategy model, which forms the organizational framework for this volume, provides a simple yet comprehensive heuristic for addressing the significant and complex problem of nonadherence, emphasizing within each component the vital role of communication between the clinician and patient.
Jessica L. Lakin and Tanya L. Chartrand
Megan L. Knowles
Michele G. Greene and Ronald D. Adelman
This chapter focuses on how communication is affected when, in addition to the physician and the patient, there is another individual present during the interaction. Although it is difficult to estimate the frequency with which triadic (three-person) encounters take place, they occur in a variety of medical situations, including pediatric, obstetric, geriatric, and oncology visits, visits in which an interpreter is present, visits in which health-care professional trainees participate, and a myriad of inpatient situations. Although estimates of the frequency of accompaniment to medical visits vary from study to study, we hypothesize that over the next decade there will be many more encounters in which a third person is present. This is likely to occur because of the rapid growth of the aging of the population (where there is frequent accompaniment in geriatric visits), the greater recognition of medical errors (and the potential role that accompanying third parties may play in reducing errors), the increasing size of the immigrant population that will need translating services, and the consumerist approach to health care. Of note, in recent empirical research, we have observed tetradic (four-person) and pentadic (five-person) medical visits. In this chapter, we briefly review the theoretical basis for understanding multiparty medical encounters (i.e., visits in which more than two interactive participants are present) and examine triadic interactions in four clinical areas: pediatric care, oncologic care, encounters with interpreters present, and geriatric care. We also provide an excerpt of a transcript from a visit to explore interactions in which more than three persons are present. An agenda for future research is suggested.