Maricela Correa-Chávez, Heather Mangione, and Kaitlin Black
This chapter examines how teaching and learning is organized in many communities around the world. It contrasts how child learning is organized by Observing and Pitching In (Rogoff et al., 2013) in communities where schooling has historically not been central to childhood with how learning is often organized in schools and highly schooled communities. The focus is on children’s inclusion in community and family activity, the initiative they take in participating in activities, and the different forms of attention and communication fostered and used in these contexts. The chapter also examines the sociocultural context of school and the changes observed in communities as schooling has become more common over generations. It briefly explores variations in schools, as well as variation in engagement with school, and suggests that school ways of learning and community ways of learning might co-exist to form part of a child’s repertoire of learning practices.