Morten G. Ender
This chapter explores the meaning of the film Groundhog Day relative to social-psychological elements of boredom. The chapter presents the popular film Groundhog Day featuring actor Bill Murray as a metaphor for American soldiers’ experiences in Iraq. American soldiers and others in Iraq referred to their experience as akin to the film. Groundhog Day is a spatio-temporal displacement film, a comedic love story featuring personal redemption in order for the main character to successfully transform. Groundhog Day—the day—has spiritual and nature roots and represents the transition to springtime. All religions find utility in the film’s leitmotif, and Bill Murray represents a character regularly cast in transitional roles. The chapter highlights direct references to the film from those with experience in Iraq and presents some interpretations of the film itself that are illustrative of the American experience in Iraq. The chapter concludes with some future directions for research by social psychologists and applications for practitioners interested in soldiering, film, and boredom.
Richard E. Wener
Correctional environments are unique as settings in which people are confined involuntarily, possibly for very long periods of time, and not for their own welfare. As such they can be very difficult places to endure. Moreover, inmates and staff are exposed to multiple environmental stressors whose effects may be magnified by the time of exposure and the difficulty in avoiding them. Inmates commonly need to cope with lack of privacy, high levels of crowding, isolation from needed human contact, constant high levels of noise, poor lighting conditions (too little in the daytime and too much at night), and little access to nature or nature views. New models of correctional design, with increased direct contact between inmates and staff, and greater control over environmental conditions, have had success in reducing violent behavior in recent decades. A model of environmental determinants of violence is presented that attempts to explain this success.
Jason R. C. Nurse
Cybercrime is a significant challenge to society, but it can be particularly harmful to the individuals who become victims. This chapter engages in a comprehensive and topical analysis of the cybercrimes that target individuals. It also examines the motivation of criminals that perpetrate such attacks and the key human factors and psychological aspects that help to make cybercriminals successful. Key areas assessed include social engineering (e.g., phishing, romance scams, catfishing), online harassment (e.g., cyberbullying, trolling, revenge porn, hate crimes), identity-related crimes (e.g., identity theft, doxing), hacking (e.g., malware, cryptojacking, account hacking), and denial-of-service crimes. As a part of its contribution, the chapter introduces a summary taxonomy of cybercrimes against individuals and a case for why they will continue to occur if concerted interdisciplinary efforts are not pursued.
Psychologists’ environmental work fosters protection of the natural world (e.g., forests, animals, ecosystems) and opposes environmental degradation. Utilizing research on seven activist environmental collaboratives that addressed long-standing environmental and health challenges, this chapter examines moral exclusion in environmental degradation that has disproportionately burdened low-income communities of color for many decades. Research on these projects identifies strategies, activities, and successes of environmental justice collaborations can effect a shift from moral exclusion to moral inclusion. A study of their work, which includes education, research, and outreach, offers a nuanced and activity-based understanding of processes that can foster moral inclusion.
Saul Kassin and Margaret Bull Kovera
Forensic psychology is a term used to describe a broad range of research topics and applications that address human behavior in the legal system. Personality and social psychologists are among those who have contributed to our understanding of individual differences in performance (e.g., among liars and lie detectors, crime suspects, witnesses, and jurors) and situational influences (e.g., effects of training on lie detection, the false evidence ploy on false confessions, police feedback on eyewitnesses, and inadmissible testimony on jurors) as well as the role that psychologists have played within the legal system. This chapter discusses how individual difference and situational variables contribute to the reliability of different types of evidence (e.g., confessions, eyewitnesses, alibis) introduced in court as well as how jurors make decisions about the evidence presented at trial.
Jason R. C. Nurse and Maria Bada
While cybercrime can often be an individual activity pursued by lone hackers, it has increasingly grown into a group activity, with networks across the world. This chapter critically examines the group element of cybercrime from several perspectives. It identifies the platforms that online groups—cybercriminal and otherwise—use to interact, and considers groups as both perpetrators and victims of cybercrime. A key novelty is the discovery of new types of online groups whose collective actions border on criminality. The chapter also analyzes how online cybercrime groups form, organize, and operate. It explores issues such as trust, motives, and means, and draws on several poignant examples, from Anonymous to LulzSec, to illustrate the arguments.
Geoffrey J. Syme and Blair E. Nancarrow
Water management is principally used here to review current knowledge in relation to social justice in the allocation of natural resources and environmental management. The sphere of human needs provided by water is described, and a water benefits approach to measuring the overall well-being from water allocation decisions is introduced. The basic concepts of social justice—procedural, interactive and distributive justice, equity, fairness, and lay environmental ethics—are outlined, along with their limitations when applied in different cultures. The premise of scale and justice judgments is posed with the example presented in watershed development in Andhra Pradesh, India. The requirement for research into ways that justice can be incorporated within the dynamic systems approaches that are becoming prevalent in ecosystems management is proposed, with the example of a fisheries-based management cycle provided to demonstrate how this can occur. The importance of incorporating and integrating time, spatial, and social dimensions into framing justice research is demonstrated. Suggestions for future research are made throughout.
Deborah Davis and J. Guillermo Villalobos
This chapter aims to provide a general review of issues psychology has addressed regarding language and the law. It focuses on three primary areas of application in legal settings: (1) encoding and memory of language and conversation; (2) language, trickery, and persuasion; and (3) language as it affects classification and judgment. The authors illustrate these issues largely with the example of disputed sexual consent and further point the reader to resources on language and law addressed more fully by other disciplines (e.g., the Oxford Handbook of Language and the Law: Tiersma & Solan, 2012a) or in other chapters of this volume. The chapter begins with a review of how statements are encoded and remembered because these issues provide the basis for understanding the use of language for trickery and persuasion, as well as for classification and judgment.
Barbara A. Spellman and Frederick Schauer
The legal system—in both substance and process—relies heavily on social cognition. However, much of the vast research in law and psychology focuses narrowly on issues of jury decision making, particularly in criminal cases. This chapter seeks to broaden that research agenda. The authors first review some of the main issues in jury research, especially those that the DNA exonerations have implicated in the false convictions of innocent people: eyewitness identification, confessions, and forensics. Second, the authors describe the multiple roles of judges, contrast them to juries, and review why judicial decision making can be described as involving implicit social cognition as part of the process of legal reasoning. Finally, the chapter illustrates how many issues of substantive law—what should count as causing harm to another person, whether intent and knowledge should matter to punishment, how people should be allowed to plan for the future in contracts and wills—all depend on assumptions about social cognition, and are all ripe for much more research.
Matthew T. Huss and Vince Flynn
The purpose of this article is to provide undergraduate instructors of courses in forensic clinical psychology with some guidance in curriculum planning and determining lecture material. To this end, after limiting the scope of this chapter strictly to the clinical application of psychology to the legal system, challenges unique to teaching a forensic psychology course are discussed; a model for an undergraduate course in forensic psychology is provided; a collection of teaching resources is gathered and made easily accessible to readers; and possible career paths related to the field of forensic psychology are described to assist instructors in providing relevant career information to interested students.