Manfred Holodynski and Wolfgang Friedlmeier
The chapter starts with an overview of the ongoing debate between evolutionary and culture-relativistic approaches and their contributions to describing and explaining cultural similarities and differences in emotions. As a theoretical and methodological completion of existing approaches, the chapter highlights the importance of an integrative developmental perspective on the ontogenetic emergence of emotions, in identifying the ontogenetic roots of their cultural similarities and differences. A developmental perspective can also serve as a validation of indigenous approaches, as well as for cross-cultural comparisons of adult emotions. This approach focuses on emotional expressions as a culturally constructed sign system that mediates between the cultural and psychological spheres. The acquisition of expression signs in interpersonal interaction leads to a transformation of biologically determined precursor emotions of neonates into the culturally functional and differentiated emotions of adults. Such an approach facilitates the identification of constitutive components of culturally differentiated emotions and their constitutive sociocultural factors that channel common and culture-specific pathways of emotional development.
Sheizaf Rafaeli and Yaron Ariel
Interactivity is not unique to computers or networks and cannot be reserved solely for the discussion of so-called ‘New Media’. Restricting analysis of interactivity to the domain of computerized and new technology alone problematizes comparisons with traditional media as well as with further developments of the new media. This article begins by reviewing some of the leading definitions and by highlighting the primary conceptual development of interactivity. It then discusses the correlates of interactivity and the different ways studies have measured it, and looks into some of the effects of interactivity by surveying empirical findings. The article also suggests treating interactivity as a unidimensional variable rather than a multidimensional construct. It is argued that expected, actual, and perceived interactivity are the relevant frameworks when examining the variable. Finally, the importance of information, meaning, and value, and their relation to interactivity, are highlighted.
Kai Sassenberg and Kai J. Jonas
This article summarizes how social influence can be exerted in computer-mediated communication (CMC). It outlines research on short-term effects of CMC on attitudes and behaviour, rather than on long-term effects of social influence. The article first presents a model of three types of social influence that can be discerned in groups, representing the current state of research on social influence. Subsequently, the characteristics of CMC relevant to social influence are described and related to this model. Following this, classical and contemporary research is reviewed. The final section outlines a model summarizing the knowledge on social influence in CMC and identifies topics for further research.
This chapter on automaticity centers around two distinctions that are vital for understanding human behavior: The first is that some behavior is voluntary, whereas other behavior is involuntary. The second is that some behavior is conscious, whereas other behavior is unconscious. In the first part of this chapter, classic lines of research on automaticity—research on incubation, on introspection, on skill acquisition, on preconscious processing, and on imitation and priming—are briefly reviewed. The second part of the chapter deals with our current understanding of the relation between goals, attention, and consciousness. Attention and consciousness are clearly distinguished, and it is argued that goals guide attention, but not consciousness. The chapter ends with a contemporary perspective on control and on the relation between consciousness, goals, and flexibility in behavior.
Nairán Ramírez-Esparza and Adrián García-Sierra
This chapter reviews studies of the bilingual brain from a variety of disciplines, employing multiple theoretical approaches and methodologies. For example, developmental psychologists and speech and hearing scientists focus on the development of the bilingual brain in infants and children using cognitive tasks, brain measurements, and observational techniques. Linguists and educational psychologists study the impact of bilingualism on language development and in the society at large with in-depth interviews, longitudinal-observational studies, and parental reports. Social psychologists and cultural scientists investigate the effects of switching languages on thoughts and feelings utilizing self-reports, observational techniques, priming, and laboratory studies. The goal of this chapter is to provide an in-depth analysis of the fascinating world of the bilingual brain, from infancy to adulthood.
Elin Runnqvist, Kristof Strijkers, and Albert Costa
A challenge for any model of bilingual word access is to explain how speakers are able to select words from the intended language without experiencing intrusions from the coactivated unintended language. The authors provide an overview of current models of bilingual speech production, and then critically examine the hypothesis that the unintended language has to be inhibited in order to select words from the intended language. The authors focus on (a) lexical retrieval difficulties associated with bilingualism and second language production; (b) cross-language semantic contextual effects; (c) advantages in domain-general cognitive control associated to bilingualism; (d) the relationship between domain-general cognitive control, language control, and bilingual advantages and disadvantages; and (e) the impact of becoming bilingual on lexical retrieval, language control, and domain general cognitive control. The authors conclude that despite the appeal of a unified inhibitory control account, a systematic evaluation of the literature highlights that a single mechanism is likely insufficient to capture all data.
Jane Davidson and Mary C. Broughton
The psychological study of the body in musical performance is a rich area with a wide range of applications for performers and teachers alike. In this chapter, some of the ways in which the body operates in the processes of generating, communicating, and understanding music performance are explored. Topics covered include the motor control aspects of playing and the bodily movements used for expressive musical effects as well as cooperative performance. Individual differences in bodily postures and gestures as well as the identification of types of bodily movement used for interpersonal communication are investigated to show how this information works to develop efficient collaborations. A theoretical basis for the work is that our sounds and bodily behaviors emerge from a single idea source, and in interpersonal communication our gestures and postures express and vivify our thoughts and utterances—spoken or musical, depending on the “language” we are manipulating.
The evolutionary perspective on religion proposes that religious ideation is natural and plausible because of innate mechanisms, the product of evolution, that lead humans to imagine reality through egocentric, anthropocentric, animistic, or teleological processes and to interpret events through intentionality and design. If these mechanisms operate in all human brains, the level of religiosity in individual and social lives is likely to remain stable and uniform, regardless of time and place. Challenges to this perspective include that the expression of religious ideation is contingent on numerous conditions, contexts, and circumstances. Manifest individual differences in religiosity, and instability in collective religiosity, lead to consideration of the gap between “deep structure” and “phenotypic” manifestations. The most serious test of this perspective is the recent appearance of secularization, which entails a massive reduction in the resources devoted to religion. The chapter analyzes the challenges and provides an integration of historical and psychological data.
David P. Brandon and Andrea B. Hollingshead
The proliferation of information and communication technologies has fostered dramatic growth in both the number and variety of online groups over the past fifteen years. Such growth necessitates a more sophisticated language for describing and capturing the diversity of online groups that moves away from traditional conceptualizations of online groups. Thus, the goal of this article is to place within a theoretical framework a set of dimensions useful in describing, categorizing, and comparing online groups. The article begins with a definition and a review of previous conceptualizations of online groups. The description of online groups borrows from and expands on the locales framework.
Denise R. Beike
The self—the abstract concept of the first person and its characteristics—and autobiographical memory—memory for discrete episodes in one’s own life—have long been thought to be linked. This chapter reviews evidence for the involvement of the self in the process of autobiographical memory construction, the development of autobiographical memory (the offset of childhood amnesia), the temporal distribution of autobiographical memories across the life span (the reminiscence bump), and disorders of memory (amnesia and hyperthymesia). Yet there is also evidence that the self and autobiographical memory are functionally independent. Mechanisms are discussed that allow the rememberer to mitigate the potential impact of threatening or self-discrepant memories on the self. As a result of these mechanisms, only particular “cherished” memories affect the abstract concept of the self.
This chapter outlines the conditions for coherence of informative discourses. It reviews a number of factors that seem to influence the degree of coherence of such non-narrative discourses, such as degree of relevance, informativeness, and meaning salience, but not cohesion. The requirements for discourse coherence are not linguistic but cognitive and should apply to nonverbal discourses as well. And although verbal discourses unfold linearly, they are represented hierarchically, in terms of prototype category, so that each incoming proposition is weighed against the category (common) features—the discourse topic proposition—in terms of similarity (relevance) and graded informativeness. Overt violations of these requirements aim to induce pleasure, convey emotions, and challenge norms of powerful groups while attempting to bring about social change.
Angélica López, Behnosh Najafi, Barbara Rogoff, and Rebeca Mejía-Arauz
This chapter examines children's collaboration and helping from the perspective that understanding prosocial development requires attention to the cultural practices and values in which children and adults participate. Children's ways of engaging with each other and with adults are based on practices of their families and the current and historical practices of their communities. We examine cultural values related to the helpfulness and propensity to collaborate that are common among Mexican, Latino/a, and Indigenous-heritage U.S. and Canadian children, as compared with European-American middle-class children. Central to this cultural difference are community values and practices regarding the relation of individuals with their communities—values that can be seen in the organization of children's families and communities.
Yoshihisa Kashima and Ying Lan
Communication is a fundamental mechanism for the constitution of the social world. This chapter argues that social communication involves a two-way transmission of information typically using language, in which the sender and receiver of a message collaboratively work together. In this perspective, language is a semiotic tool, a tool with which to create and exchange meaning; it is language use that is central to this process. Based on this fundamental understanding, the chapter describes the grounding model of communication and its social cognitive implications. In this perspective, communication is characterized as a dynamic interplay between common ground—information actually and perceived to be already shared among the communicators—and grounding—the communicators’ coordinated activity for establishing a mutual understanding about new information. When new information is grounded, common ground evolves. The evolution of common ground through communication is traced, and concomitant social cognitive consequences are discussed, not only for the senders and receivers of information, but also for the community of multiple communicators and their culture. The chapter concludes with a reaffirmation of the importance of communication as a fundamental mechanism for social cognition.
Russell Spears, Martin Lea, and Tom Postmes
This article argues that social identities not only populate computer-mediated communication (CMC) and the Internet, but they often thrive there, both by designation (of identity: the cognitive dimension) and by design (the strategic dimension in which identities and their agendas are contested). This means that far from being eliminated in CMC, the group and its effects often shine through in CMC (intragroup cohesiveness and conformity, intergroup contrast, and competition). In terms of status and power differentials this can mean that the power and status relations associated with categories are reinforced, both cognitively, by being tied to the roles and relations associated with these identities, and strategically, by the surveillance which CMC can sometimes bring.
Frank R. Kardes and Robert S. Wyer Jr.
Many of the principles that underlie consumer judgment and decision making are similar to those that have been identified in research on social information processing. However, unique considerations arise in applying them. Eight general principles that cut across both domains are identified, pertaining to cognitive efficiency, knowledge accessibility, persistence, awareness, the role of implicit theories, communication norms, subjective reactions, and information integration. Consumer behavior in a variety of domains is then discussed within the framework of these principles, emphasizing comprehension, categorization, the cognitive and motivational influence of subjective reactions, inference processes, and consumer decision processes.
Jolene D. Smyth, Don A. Dillman, and Leah Melani Christian
This article first presents a definition of context effects that eliminates from consideration factors beyond the control of survey researchers yet is sufficiently broad to incorporate diverse but related sources of survey context. It then examines four types of context effects that have been documented in mail and telephone surveys with an eye towards identifying new concerns which have arisen or may arise as a result of conducting Internet surveys. The four sources of context effects discussed are: the survey mode used to pose questions to respondents, the order in which questions are asked, the ordering of response options, and the choice of response scale. In addition to reviewing previous research, the results of new context experiments are reported in which response scales across Internet and telephone modes are manipulated.
Michelle A. Skinner, Cynthia A. Berg, and Bert N. Uchino
This chapter reviews research on the contextual variation that is seen in how older adults experience and regulate emotion evoked by interpersonal problem solving. It begins by exploring the general developmental shift toward the experience of more positive emotion and how this shift may be dependent on context and problem constraints by utilizing the concepts of Strengths and Vulnerability Integration. It examines four different everyday problem-solving contexts in middle-aged and older adult married couples and then considers the physiological processes that might be related to emotion regulation during adulthood.
Countering False Beliefs: An Analysis of the Evidence and Recommendations of Best Practices for the Retraction and Correction of Scientific Misinformation
Man-pui Sally Chan, Christopher Jones, and Dolores Albarracín
Although false beliefs about science are at the core of theory and practice in the field of scientific communication, correction and retraction of misinformation entail a complex and difficult process. This chapter first provides a review of trends in scientific retraction and correction notes failures in the fundamental communicative function of signaling that a published finding has been invalidated. It describes the recent practical communication developments that are increasing the transparency and visibility of retractions and corrections of fraudulent or incorrect scientific findings and examines the final barrier to correction of misbelief: the continued influence effect. The chapter reviews the results of a meta-analysis of the continued influence effect and present psychology-based recommendations in the form of decision trees to guide the work of scientists and practitioners and provides eight best practice recommendations for science communication scholars and practitioners as they continue their battle against misinformation.
I argue that the chapters in this section only modestly challenge the “traditional mindreading account,” which sees the capacity for mental state attribution as central to human social cognition. This internalist, cognitivist account has already been refined in recent years to give greater attention to unreflective, dynamic social interaction and non-mindreading processes. The chapters here support a kind of embodied social cognition that does not involve mindreading. They also support the idea that an embedded/situated cognition perspective can inform the nature of the mindreading and non-mindreading forms of social cognition, particularly their use during dynamic social interaction. Further, important empirical questions arise about the importance of social interaction in the development of mindreading. But the more radical extended cognition thesis only appears sporadically and is weakly defended. Thus, the 4E perspective represented here does not challenge the importance of the “representation-hungry,” internal capacity for mindreading.
Michael H. Birnbaum
This article focuses on the design of Internet-based experiments. It discusses the five criteria of a theory, between- versus within-subject designs, representative design, and systextual design. The results of psychological experiments can and do depend on the experimental designs used to establish causal effects. For example, the effect of a variable can be opposite in within- as opposed to between-subjects designs. It can also be reversed when the correlations among independent variables are manipulated via systextual design. These findings mean that the conclusions one draws need to be restricted to the type of experimental design used until one has established the effects of experimental designs themselves.