David T. Moore and Robert R. Hoffman
Proficiency scaling in the domain of intelligence analysis converges on an answer to the question of what counts as expertise in this domain. Proficiency scales in the domain are based on what are called essential competencies. There are many distinct analytical roles, entailing a specialization of expertise. This chapter discusses macrocognitive models of analyst reasoning and knowledge as a function of proficiency level, including recognition-primed decision making and intuition. This chapter also considers individual differences and conceptualize the different styles to be relatively stable and distinctive approaches to critical thinking. Proficiency scaling entails the issue of whether intelligence analysts are prone to cognitive biases. Analysts must cope with the problem of indeterminate causation, that is, the understanding of events for which there is no single cause, and causal forces include human agency and motivations. Directives in the intelligence community call for robust performance measures, but measuring analyst procedural skills is non-trivial. Finally, the implications for training are discussed.
Cognition and Technology: Interdisciplinarity and the Impact of Cognitive Engineering Research on Organizational Productivity
Stephen M. Fiore
In this chapter I describe the dynamic intersection of cognition and technology as it has emerged through the development of cognitive engineering research. This discipline has matured over the past several decades into an interdisciplinary approach, melding concepts and methods from cognitive psychology, computer science, and engineering with a holistic approach to understanding human-technology integration. I show how cognitive engineering has contributed to both a fundamental and practical understanding of human performance embedded in context, and I offer suggestions for developments in the field that may provide a more cohesive and unified approach to understanding and expanding human-systems integration.
Shane T. Mueller
In this chapter, word game expertise will be examined from a cognitive perspective. First, a general taxonomic space of word games where the primary organizing axis distinguishes letter versus meaning-centered games will be proposed. Next, crosswords and SCRABBLE will be the focus, and aspects of game expertise will be examined by summarizing past research and news reports, including tournament and practice records. Finally, the results of a number of expert–novice comparison studies that have examined the cognitive differences between word game experts and non-experts will be summarized. The chapter will conclude with the hypothesis that word game expertise is supported by both practice and prior skills and ability, and will suggest predisposition-opportunity may be a fruitful framework for understanding skilled performance in this domain.
Neelam Naikar and Ashleigh Brady
This chapter presents a perspective of human expertise in sociotechnical systems based on the phenomenon of self-organization. Consistent with the ideals of the field of cognitive systems engineering, this perspective is based on empirical observations of how work is achieved in complex settings and incorporates an emphasis on design. The proposed perspective is motivated by the observation that workers in sociotechnical systems adapt not just their individual behaviors, but also their collective structures, in ways that are closely fitted to the evolving circumstances, such that these systems are necessarily self-organizing, a phenomenon that is essential for dealing with complexity in the task environment. Accordingly, the chapter explores in depth the theoretical and design implications of the phenomenon of self-organization for understanding and supporting human expertise in sociotechnical systems, and draws attention to the broader implications of this phenomenon for advancing a social basis for human cognition.
David Z. Hambrick, Alexander P. Burgoyne, and Frederick L. Oswald
This chapter reviews evidence concerning the contribution of cognitive ability to individual differences in expertise. The review covers research in traditional domains for expertise research such as music, sports, and chess, as well as research from industrial–organizational psychology on job performance. The specific question that we seek to address is whether domain-general measures of cognitive ability (e.g., IQ, working memory capacity, executive functioning, processing speed) predict individual differences in domain-relevant performance, especially beyond beginning levels of skill. Evidence from the expertise literature relevant to this question is difficult to interpret, due to small sample sizes, restriction of range, and other methodological limitations. By contrast, there is a wealth of consistent evidence that cognitive ability is a practically important and statistically significant predictor of job performance, even after extensive job experience. The chapter discusses ways that cognitive ability measures might be used in efforts to accelerate the acquisition of expertise.
This chapter presents a contemporary overview of human factors psychology, including its origins, core problems, methodological approaches, and overviews of state-of-the-art research in three key areas likely to be relevant to industrial/organizational psychology. These include: human-automation interaction, or HAI; situation awareness, or SA; and distraction, multitasking, and interruption, or DMI. Each of these areas has arisen as a result of the increased challenges and opportunities provided by ever increasing levels of technological sophistication in the workplace. The chapter concludes by noting that human factors researchers are increasingly drawing on, and contributing to, social, in addition to cognitive, psychological research. This trend, motivated by both increasing levels of technological autonomy and opacity, as well as by the fact that social coordination and teamwork is increasingly mediated by information and communication technologies, bodes well for human factors and industrial/organizational psychology to have an even greater symbiotic and mutually informing relationship in the future.