Alicia A. Grandey and Morgan A. Krannitz
To effectively perform our roles, emotions need to be regulated while both at work (e.g., with customers, supervisor) and at home (e.g., with children, partner); yet, researchers often focus on one domain or the other. In this chapter, four main questions are addressed: (1) Is emotion regulation performed more at work or at home? (2) Is performing emotion regulation at work (i.e., emotional labor) more distressing to the employee than performing emotion regulation at home (i.e., emotion work)? (3) How does performing emotion regulation in one domain affect outcomes in the other domain? (4) Do emotional intelligence and regulatory skills help to successfully balance work and family? This chapter highlights what is known and unknown within each section, and provides many avenues for future research to better integrate emotion regulation with the work–family interface.
Christopher P. Nemeth
Health-care activities rely on the acquisition, portrayal, and analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic information as an integral part of patient care. As a service provided by multiple participants, the communication of information is embedded in nearly every aspect of health care. There is much talk of communication as an issue that needs to be improved. This is often because other issues such as equipment research and development and government policy are outside care providers’ immediate range of influence. A good deal of the discussion about communication is uninformed by any real understanding of communication as a field. It is also based on certain presumptions such as more data equal greater understanding, or completeness (rather than salience) equates to quality, or changing the medium (e.g., from face-to-face to e-mail) does not affect message. In fact, changes to communication may not yield direct benefits because other stronger forces such as economic, social, organizational, and legal influences make health care what it is. This chapter invites attention to the nature of the health care work setting, the communication of information through verbal exchanges and artifacts, and efforts that have the potential to improve team communication and care.
Shirli Kopelman, Orli Avi-Yonah, and Akshaya K. Varghese
This chapter adopts a positive organizational scholarship lens to examine negotiation theory. Whether focusing on cognitive or social processes, the basic assumptions of most negotiation research are drawn from social exchange theory (Blau, 1964 ; Emerson, 1976 ; Homans, 1958 ; Thibaut & Kelley, 1959 ), which conceptualizes relationships as economic transactions of material or nonmaterial goods. Building on humanistic psychology (Rogers, 1959 , 1961 ), we suggest that engaging in mindful and strategic emotion management through a process of self-narration (Kopelman, Chen, & Shoshana, 2009 ) enables negotiators to develop positive regard for the self and others. Our framework suggests that negotiating mindfully will improve instrumental outcomes and well-being.
Martha S. Feldman and Monica C. Worline
This chapter presents an overview of resourcing theory, comparing it with other perspectives such as resource dependence and the resource based view of the firm. After developing an understanding of the basic tenets of resourcing theory, the chapter goes on to explicate three mechanisms of resourcing in context that arise from recent empirical research and are likely to be of value to positive organizational scholars. The chapter concludes with an exploration of how the endogenous nature of resourcing and the potential for ampliative cycles can support positive spirals, a subject of vital interest to those studying positive organizational scholarship.
Torbjörn Åkerstedt and Göran Kecklund
Work is a necessity of life and has many positive effects on human well-being, but some aspects may also be a threat to well-being. The present chapter has focused on some of the factors that may constitute an impediment to sleep—stress, work hours, and socioeconomic group. With regard to stress there is a large number of studies that link self-reported stress to self-reports of impaired sleep. Prospective studies are surprisingly rare but essentially support this link, as do the even rarer polysomnographical studies of real-life stress. Some loss of sleep efficiency and increase of sleep latency and time awake are seen in groups on sick leave for stress-related fatigue (burnout) where the impairment is pronounced. A key link between stress and impaired sleep seems to be the effort expended at work and the inability to turn off thoughts of work (“rumination”) around bedtime. It is also suggested that the physiological effects of sleep loss are very similar to those characteristic of stress, and the metabolic diseases linked to stress seem to have a similarly strong link to disturbed sleep. A second major work-related cause of impaired sleep is irregular work hours. In particular, night and early morning work truncate sleep and result in high levels of fatigue/sleepiness during work and leisure. The mechanism mainly involves work during the circadian low and sleep during the circadian high. The first causes high sleepiness/fatigue, and the second terminates sleep prematurely, adding to sleepiness/fatigue. Night work and early morning work is also a major cause of road accidents in particular, but also other types of accidents. The long-term effects of night work also include cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disease. A third work-related factor behind poor sleep seems to be socioeconomic group. On the whole, blue-collar workers report more disturbed sleep than do white-collar workers. The active component in the causation has not been clearly identified, but physical work load, financial strain, and a less positive situation in life may contribute. Being employed or not has not been extensively researched, but results indicate more sleep problems than in those unemployed.
Blake E. Ashforth, Karen K. Myers, and David M. Sluss
Research on socialization in organizational contexts has followed four relatively independent paths: socialization stage models, socialization tactics, newcomer proactivity, and socialization content (newcomer learning). We argue that these paths are actually intertwined, such that they jointly lead to newcomer adjustment (specifically, role clarity, task mastery, social acceptance, and role crafting). Although socialization research tends to assume that the process is somewhat negative—reducing uncertainty and anxiety—a positive organizational scholarship (POS) lens suggests that newcomers frequently view the process as a positive experience. Indeed, newcomers are apt to feel exhilarated and energized by the novelty and challenges of a new work setting. We examine how the process of socialization may foster not only the “conventional” outcomes of newcomer learning and adjustment, but greater psychological capital and a sense of thriving.
Arnold B. Bakker and Wido G.M. Oerlemans
This chapter focuses on the concept of subjective well-being (SWB) in organizations. We use the circumplex model of affect as a theoretical framework to distinguish between specific types of work-related subjective well-being, including work engagement, job satisfaction, happiness at work, workaholism, and burnout. In addition, we will link positive types of work-related SWB to job performance. Specific attention is paid to capturing the dynamics of SWB in work settings on a daily basis.
Ioana Popovici and Michael T. French
Health economists have been actively investigating the relationships between substance use and educational achievement/labor market performance outcomes. Although researchers agree on the direction and magnitude of the relationships between substance use and some of these outcomes, many questions remain unanswered. For instance, the literature generally indicates that drug use has a negative impact on most academic outcomes. Less evidence exists, however, of a negative impact of alcohol use on education. Although results suggest that drinking is associated with lower grades, and most research shows that drinking negatively impacts the probability of graduating from high school, several studies have been unable to find significant relationships between alcohol consumption and the number of years of schooling completed. Similarly, although most studies find a wage premium for moderate alcohol users, results on the effect of problem drinking or the use of other drugs on the probability of employment are mixed.
Genevieve Ames and Roland S. Moore
National surveys in the United States and elsewhere reveal a wide range in rates of heavy drinking across occupations, with the highest in construction and lowest in educational industries. Young adults in the military have higher heavy drinking rates than their civilian counterparts, with the highest among Army and Marine personnel. Civilian and military heavy and binge drinking and drinking on the job have been linked to specific kinds of work-related problems of high consequences to employer, employees, and the military. In 1998, the estimated employment-related costs of alcohol abuse in the United States were $135 billion; the projected costs 15 years hence are much higher. Guided by theoretical advances, links between specific environmental factors and undesirable drinking behavior have been identified and explained in the context of work culture. Results of these research endeavors have provided guidelines for research and intervention focused on prevention of alcohol-related problems in the civilian and military workplace.
Kim S. Cameron and Bradley Winn
Virtuousness represents the best of the human condition or the highest aspirations human beings hold for themselves. In organizations, virtuousness is often manifest in collective displays of moral excellence. It signifies a core concept within positive organizational scholarship (POS), and the legitimacy and credibility of POS is at least partly dependent on whether virtuousness exists in organizations and whether it has pragmatic value. Yet, little agreement characterizes the current literature regarding the definition and relevance of virtuousness, and almost no empirical investigations have been published on virtuousness in organizations. This chapter carefully defines and explains the key attributes of virtuousness in organizations, summarizes the main findings from the few empirical studies that have been conducted, and offers a research agenda to guide future research on virtuousness in the coming years.