Mark J. Sciutto
This chapter examines the role of Clinical and Counseling Psychology courses in the undergraduate curriculum and offers a conceptual framework for designing courses that promote cognitive and affective development in the student. The chapter uses Wiggins and McTighe’s (2006) multifaceted model of understanding to address the specific goals and challenges of courses in Clinical and Counseling Psychology. Rather than giving an overview of the extensive literature on isolated classroom activities and assignments, the focus of this chapter is on two integrative pedagogical approaches. Specifically, the chapter articulates how focusing on evidence-based practice and incorporating service-learning can be used to target multiple facets of understanding in students. Using this framework, the chapter provides examples and guiding principles for constructing specific learning activities, addressing ethical considerations, and exploring diversity issues.
New students of music therapy soon find that the most common inquiry about their field of study is “What is music therapy?” They may also be asked questions such as “Does that work?” Even experienced practitioners in the field can find these questions annoyingly routine in meeting new colleagues. In answering these questions, providing a definition of music therapy is important. There are multiple constructs through which the functions and capacities of music therapy can be usefully discussed. Five of these areas are elaborated in the Oxford Handbook of Music Therapy; music therapy contexts and populations across the lifespan, music therapy models and approaches, music therapy methods, music therapy research, and music therapy training and professional issues. This chapter elaborates these areas and discusses the contribution to the development of music therapy in each of these sectors of inquiry and practice.
Suzanne B. Hanser
This chapter provides an overview of the standards and guidelines established in the USA since the establishment of the first training course in 1919 and the first professional association in 1950. It details the standards that emerged during almost 100 years of music therapy training in America, and includes the current status of training practices in the English-speaking countries of the world. To begin this effort, the author interviewed a small group of eighteen music therapy educators in order to sample current thinking in the field. Through this process, an intricate web of philosophical approaches, scientific values, and musical abilities were revealed. This chapter presents some information about: (a) The challenges experienced in training provision; (b) Perspectives about training provision; and (c) Standards, guidelines, and competencies that have been devised by professional organizations.
Becoming a practitioner in music therapy occurs at multiple levels. At an individual level the student’s processes and learning are part of this becoming. At an interpersonal level the interactions between students as a group and in collaboration with their educators, fieldwork supervisors, and clients shape and frame the development of professional competencies. At the wider systemic level the values and processes of training are influenced by the provider institution, usually a university, and the management and department in which the music therapy training programme is housed. This systemic level also includes the external regulator such as state or national accreditation structures and the requirements of the relevant professional body. This chapter presents how the profession of music therapy has considered aspects of professionalism, professional practice, and accreditation.