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Attachment Orientations and Reactions to Ostracism in Close Relationships and Groups  

Phillip R. Shaver and Mario Mikulincer

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
Attachment theory is one of the most useful contemporary conceptual frameworks for understanding emotion regulation and mental health. In his exposition of attachment theory, John Bowlby explained ... More

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and the Challenges of Social Exclusion  

Amori Yee Mikami

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent diagnosis among school-age children and symptoms frequently persist into adolescence and adulthood. This chapter describes the high ... More

Attentional Retraining for Anxiety  

Norman B. Schmidt

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
Cognitive models of psychopathology, particularly disorders involving anxiety symptoms, emphasize information processing biases in their development and maintenance. Research has consistently shown ... More

Behavioral Mimicry as an Affiliative Response to Social Exclusion  

Jessica L. Lakin and Tanya L. Chartrand

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
The nonconscious behavioral mimicry and social exclusion literatures are merged to explore whether mimicking the behaviors of others could be a possible affiliative behavior that follows social ... More

Belonging Regulation through the Use of (Para)social Surrogates  

Megan L. Knowles

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
If belonging is a fundamental human need, then social exclusion should motivate reconnection or another means of fulfilling one’s belonging needs. Consistent with this premise, research reveals that ... More

The Birth and Death of Belonging  

Jeff Schimel and Jeff Greenberg

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
Terror management theory (TMT) (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986 ) offers an evolutionary–existential–psychoanalytic perspective on the human motive to belong. According to this view, the ... More

Body Image Disturbance During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period  

Kelly C. Allison and David B. Sarwer

Print publication date:
Apr 2016
Online publication date:
Jan 2014
Body image disturbances are common among women in the general population. Less is known about their prevalence and impact during pregnancy. This chapter examines the history of body image ... More

Cortisol Responses to Social Exclusion  

Sally S. Dickerson and Peggy M. Zoccola

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
Experiences of social exclusion, or contexts that create the potential for social exclusion, not only have potent psychological effects, but they can have physiological consequences as well. This ... More

The Dark Side of Divorce  

David A. Sbarra and Ashley E. Mason

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
This chapter reviews research linking marital separation and divorce to three important outcomes in adults: mental health problems, physical health outcomes, and relational violence, including risk ... More

Depression and Suicide: Transactional Relations with Rejection  

Kimberly A. Van Orden and Thomas E. Joiner Jr.

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
This chapter provides an overview of empirical data supporting the notion of a transactional relationship between depression and rejection, suggesting that rejection is both a cause and consequence ... More

Driven to Exclude: How Core Social Motives Explain Social Exclusion  

Michael S. North and Susan T. Fiske

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
This chapter explores how social exclusion operates via core social motives: Belonging, Understanding, Controlling, Enhancing Self, and Trusting Others (BUC[K]ET; Fiske, 2010a ). Within this ... More

Emerging Perspectives on the Study of Social Exclusion  

C. Nathan DeWall

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
From its beginning, the field of psychology emphasized the importance of social connections. Whether it was monkeys who preferred terrycloth mothers to wired ones, therapists who gave their clients ... More

Emotion in Relationships  

Leanne K. Knobloch and Sandra Metts

Print publication date:
Apr 2013
Online publication date:
Aug 2013
People's close relationships provide the backdrop for some of their most intensely poignant and conventionally routine experiences of emotion. Although contemporary theories of emotion are ... More

Evolutionary Perspectives on Interpersonal Acceptance and Rejection  

Mark R. Leary and Catherine A. Cottrell

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
Establishing and maintaining relationships with other people was among the most crucial tasks faced by our evolutionary ancestors. As a result, human beings possess adaptations not only to seek ... More

How and When Exclusion Motivates Social Reconnection  

Daniel C. Molden and Jon K. Maner

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
Because fulfilling needs for social connection is so fundamental to health and well-being, people should be highly motivated to restore social connections when they are threatened. This chapter ... More

The Importance of Feeling Valued: Perceived Regard in Romantic Relationships  

Justin V. Cavallo and John G. Holmes

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
Romantic relationships present people with unparalleled opportunity to fulfill fundamental intimacy goals. However, they also present the risk of experiencing social pain. Recent research has ... More

Individual Differences in Responses to Social Exclusion: Self-Esteem, Narcissism, and Self-Compassion  

Ashley Batts Allen, Michelle R. vanDellen, and W. Keith Campbell

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
Experiences of social exclusion disrupt people’s feelings of belongingness. Because self-esteem is connected to how socially connected people feel to important others, such experiences lower state ... More

Looking Back and Forward: Lessons Learned and Moving Ahead  

C. Nathan DeWall

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
Over the past 15 years, psychologists embraced the importance social connections more than ever before. The chapters that included in the Oxford Handbook of Social Exclusion offer the most ... More

The Multi-Motive Model of Responses to Rejection-Related Experiences  

Laura Smart Richman

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
This chapter describes a multimotive model of responses to rejection-related experiences. Social exclusion, like other forms of rejection, represents a threat to our need to be valued and accepted by ... More

Ostracism and Stages of Coping  

Eric D. Wesselmann and Kipling D. Williams

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
Ostracism—being ignored and excluded—is a painful event that many individuals experience. Williams (2009) proposed a temporal model of ostracism, arguing that reactions to ostracism change over time. ... More

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