Bradley L. Kirkman, Cristina B. Gibson, and Kwanghyun Kim
Research on virtual teams continues to grow as this form of teaming is increasingly adopted by organizations worldwide. To comprehensively analyze the growing literature on virtual teams, we reviewed 197 articles published between 1986 and 2008. We organize our review both by level of analysis (i.e., individual, group, and organization) and by relevance to the input-emergent state-process-output (IEPO) framework, yielding 12 theoretically meaningful categories of research. We summarize and synthesize this research over the last 22 years in each of these 12 areas, and we conclude with directions for future research related to five overarching themes: (a) the conceptualization of virtuality; (b) team development; (c) virtual team leadership; (d) levels of analysis; and (e) multidisciplinary approaches.
Hanna van Solinge
This chapter provides a summary of developments in retirement adjustment research. The chapter starts with a review of the major theoretical approaches to adjustment to life events in general, and retirement in particular. The second part provides a summary of empirical findings. To organize these findings, a distinction is made between research focusing on the descriptive question regarding the general impact of retirement on the individual, and research posing the explanatory question of why adjustment is more difficult in some cases than in others. The last part highlights future directions that may be fruitful for researchers in this area. Both methodological issues and empirical gaps in the literature are adressed. This chapter seeks to contribute to the understanding of how the loss of work affects successful aging and hopes to offer more insight into the circumstances under which retirement jeopardizes the well-being of older adults.
Bruce J. Avolio and Ketan H. Mhatre
This review tracks the evolution of the theory of authentic leadership from its theoretical conception to more recent empirical research. We begin this chapter by providing an overview of the construct of authenticity and various conceptualizations in the research literature. We follow that by an examination of the theoretical advances that have characterized the field of authentic leadership by outlining the competing models of authentic leadership proposed in prior research literature. Next, we summarize the empirical validation studies of the theory of authentic leadership in an effort to highlight the development that the field of authentic leadership has undergone over the past 6 years. And, finally, we synthesize research findings and use them as a platform for offering suggestions to facilitate future leadership research and practice.
Barbara Griffin, Vanessa Loh, and Beryl Hesketh
This chapter considers the complex role of age and gender in the retirement process. Although typically used as control variables in research, we discuss relevant theories that might explain why both age and gender need to be considered as key drivers of the process, then review empirical findings related to their effect on retirement timing, on the various patterns of work and non-work that people choose when transitioning to full retirement, on the extent that people plan for retirement, and on their level of adjustment in retirement.
Elissa L. Perry, Gina Dokko, and Frank D. Golom
Two perspectives have been used to understand the experiences of aging workers in the workplace: the age discrimination and diversity perspective, and the relational demography perspective. We suggest that these approaches are limited and that Person–Environment (P-E) fit theory provides a broader theoretical framework that is potentially more useful, even though it has not been applied to understanding the experiences of aging workers specifically. A P-E fit approach suggests that the degree of compatibility between an individual and a work environment influences the individual’s attitudes, behaviors, and employment outcomes. We apply this framework and review relevant literature to understand how individuals “fit” their job, a coworker, their work group, and their organization as a function of their age, and the ensuing consequences of this fit.
Steven F. Cronshaw
The Canadian workforce is aging in a pattern similar to that in many other Western countries. If major global events do not intervene (e.g., mass migration from the South to northern climates in response to global warming), demographic aging of the workforce will continue to the middle of the 21st century. Apocalyptic demography predicts that population and workforce aging in Canada will have the inevitable effect of lowering national productivity and compromising the integrity of social programs. A review of research on the effects of workforce aging reported in this chapter refutes these apocalyptic predictions. Negative effects of workforce aging can be successfully ameliorated and managed through targeted economic and social policy combined with enlightened management practices. The transition to a graying workforce will be aided by education efforts informing the Canadian commonweal of the facts and fallacies of aging effects in the workplace.
Barbara L. Rau and Gary A. Adams
This chapter introduces the organizational view of retirement by exploring the relationship between organizational strategy and human resource management decisions regarding retirement. The authors begin with an overview of organizational strategy and discuss two methods used to plan for an aging and retiring workforce. Several key human resource decisions related to retirement are then addressed. In the pre-retirement phase, the role of HR in helping employees to prepare for retirement is discussed, focusing primarily on financial planning and other retirement-related benefits. Next, human resource decisions pertaining to managing a retirement-ready workforce are discussed, addressing specifically the issues of knowledge transfer and motivating performance. Finally, interactions with individuals after retirement are discussed by looking at recruitment and bridge employment.
Howard J. Klein and Beth Polin
This chapter reviews what academics are studying and what practitioners are doing with respect to onboarding. The onboarding “best practices” conveyed through practitioner outlets generally do not provide sufficient prescription to implement policies or programs that will achieve desired outcomes. That prescription is also lacking from the academic literature, as there is a paucity of research on specific onboarding practices. Using the Klein and Heuser (2008 ) Inform-Welcome-Guide framework, we first examine the available insights from the academic literature. We then review the practitioner literature and identify the common recommendations that are made regarding onboarding best practices. We also summarize a recent survey conducted to gain a clearer picture of what organizations are currently doing with respect to onboarding practices. We conclude with a discussion of disconnects observed across these three areas and the identification of future research needs.
William T. Gallo
Retirement is a variable, often complex process whose impact on somatic and behavioral well-being likely involves such factors as the linearity and quality of the transition, its desirability, and attributes of the former job and retiree, particularly recent health trends. Yet studies have only begun to capture the intricacies of this critical life transition. This chapter surveys the scientific literature on the association between retirement and physical health and health behaviors. The section on physical health describes studies of self-assessed health, functional status, chronic conditions, biological markers of disease, and mortality, while the behavioral research section covers investigations of physical activity, alcohol use, smoking, and body weight. Research in these areas has produced a set of largely inconsistent results, owing to differences in design, measurement, and statistical methodology. Isolation of an average, population-level effect of retirement may not be achievable, given that variation in the retirement experience and its antecedents produces dissimilar health and behavioral outcomes. Future studies should therefore focus on identifying factors that distinguish groups of individuals who are most detrimentally affected by retirement.
John P. Campbell
Sometime during the 1980s, industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology stopped merely complaining about the “criterion problem” and began thinking about occupational or work role performance as a construct that could be substantively modeled. Subsequently, there has been considerable theory and research dealing with the substantive latent structure of performance, performance dynamics, and performance measurement issues. This chapter reviews these developments and argues that, despite differences in terminology and points of emphasis, there is virtually complete convergence concerning the principal components of job performance. The convergent picture is described, along with its implication for theory and research in I/O psychology. Finally, and somewhat unexpectedly, it is argued that at a particular level of generality/specificity the substantive structure of individual work performance is invariant, regardless of occupation, organizational level, situational context, or performance dynamics.
A Behavioral Economics Perspective on the Overjustification Effect: Crowding-In and Crowding-Out of Intrinsic Motivation
Antoinette Weibel, Meike Wiemann, and Margit Osterloh
In the last two decades, economic motivation research has undergone a paradigm shift when it comes to the effect of incentive schemes on individual performance and motivation. Inspired by self-determination theory, a new branch in economics evolved called behavioral economics. Especially by evidencing the negative effect of “pay-for-performance” on intrinsic motivation, called the “crowding-out” or “overjustification” effect, it challenges the economic paradigm of the relative price-effect and its inherent belief in incentives as universal remedy for motivation and individual performance. This article reviews the findings of behavioral economics on motivation. Drawing on these results we discuss which institutional conditions strengthen rather than weaken intrinsic motivation. We demonstrate that fairness, participation, market-driven wages, and normatively affected decision-making contexts have a positive effect on intrinsic motivation.
Nancy P. Rothbard and Shefali V. Patil
In this chapter, we examine the psychological state of employee work engagement. Our objective is to provide an overview of the engagement construct, clarify its definition, and discuss its behavioral outcomes. We discuss the development of the work engagement construct, which has led to many inconsistencies among scholars about its definition. We clarify that engagement captures employees’ strong focus of attention, intense absorption, and high energy toward their work-related tasks. Work engagement is important to the positive organizational scholarship (POS) field because engagement can lead to a number of positive outcomes, such as in-role and extra-role performance, client satisfaction, proactivity, adaptivity, and creativity. Managers, however, must ensure that employees have adequate resources and sufficient breaks, so that engagement does not lead to burnout or depletion. We encourage scholars interested in studying engagement in the future to investigate the contextual moderators that affect the relationship between engagement and employee behavior and examine the differential effects of the components of engagement—attention, absorption, and energy.
Kevin E. Cahill, Michael D. Giandrea, and Joseph F. Quinn
This chapter focuses on the prevalence, determinants, and outcomes of bridge jobs that follow full-time career employment and precede labor force withdrawal. Since the mid-1980s, the labor force participation rates of older Americans have been rising, reversing a century-long trend toward earlier and earlier retirement among men. A majority of older Americans now stay in the labor force when they leave their career jobs. They retire gradually, in stages. For them, retirement is not a one-time permanent event, but a process. For some, bridge jobs are a quality-of-life choice, a way to remain active and productive, often in a new line of work. For others, they are a financial necessity to augment inadequate retirement resources. We argue that bridge jobs are largely a positive phenomenon for individuals, employers, and the country as a whole. For individuals, continued work increases financial stability in old age and can provide non-pecuniary benefits as well. Employers are able to hire from a larger pool of experienced workers. Finally, the nation benefits from the additional goods and services produced, which somewhat alleviate the economic challenges of an aging population.
Jocelyn S. Davis
In this chapter, we will introduce and define the Positive Workplace; share why and how it was developed based on the field of positive psychology; discuss consideration of the language of positive psychology in business; describe making the case for positive psychology at work; describe the audiences for this program; discuss the self-assessments used; describe Facilitated Learning Opportunity (FLO), a facilitated learning opportunity (a teaching technique) designed to mirror the Positive Workplace; describe the program structure and content; and, share selected applications from both a graduate course in managing project teams and corporate work together with our preliminary observations and results. These selected applications include: Languaging the Values in Action (VIA) Strengths Inventory for Business; the Best Self-Introduction: VIA Strengths at Work; FLO: Mirroring the Positive Workplace in the program; Ideal Workplace case for individuals and teams. We will close with our thoughts on areas for future applications development and on the growing opportunities for practitioners and researchers to collaborate.
The concept of work as a calling has generated considerable interest among researchers, inspiring a number of new lines of research into this intriguing experience of work. This chapter describes the different approaches to defining what a calling is, where it comes from, and its effects for individuals and organizations. Rather than treating the variety of perspectives on callings as a liability, it considers the many opportunities for rich empirical work that it suggests. The chapter highlights promising areas for future inquiry while sparking new questions to help spur researchers to continue to deepen our understanding of the nature of callings.
R. Eric Landrum
Broadly speaking, it is well-documented what society and employers want from college graduates. Due to the unavailability of data, however, it is less clear what the specific expectations are regarding bachelor’s degree recipients in psychology. After reviewing the available data about employer concerns and needs, I highlight the potential benefits of a career development course in psychology, centering on the existing empirical evidence that supports beneficial student outcomes. Specific recommendations are offered at the conclusion of chapter, focusing on national needs and better coordination of efforts so that best practices can be identified and evidence-based success stories can be shared with students and instructors.
The areas of change and leadership have received an enormous level of both academic and practitioner attention during the last decade. This may be a consequence of the incessant pressures on organizations to change in order to succeed in an increasingly complex and volatile environment. Against this background, this chapter explores the challenges of change and recent research which illustrates how leaders can impact on change in a way that increases the likelihood of successful implementation. The findings from this research challenge much of the prevailing thinking. However, the chapter proposes that these findings illustrate linkages with concepts drawn from the field of positive psychology. The discussion provides clear evidence that supports the value of applying the concepts of positive psychology within the workplace.
Kenneth S. Shultz and Deborah A. Olson
We begin this chapter with a discussion of the macro-level changes, such as globalization, diversity, and technological advancements, that are changing work in the twenty-first century. Then, we discuss the more prominent micro-level changes influencing the nature of work, such as opportunities for lifelong learning and rewards; changes with regard to employee expectations, particularly with regard to work-life balance and personal flexibility; and an increased focus on the use of talents. Next, we shift to discussing the changing nature of retirement, examining how individual attributes, job and organizational factors, family factors, and socioeconomic factors are all changing the way we think about retirement. We next focus on two emerging concepts, work ability and bridge employment, and examine how they are shaping how we think about retirement in the twenty-first century. The need to look at both the antecedents and outcomes of retirement from a multilevel perspective is discussed next, before we conclude with several recommendations for future research.
Wayne F. Cascio
The chapter explores some key trends that will affect work, workers, and management in the coming decades. It begins by examining how change itself has changed, followed by the impacts of technology and e-commerce on companies in a variety of industries, demographic changes, and the impending issue of global demand exceeding the supply of people with needed skills. Building on these themes, the chapter then examines the relationship between demographic changes and knowledge management, and what some U.S. companies are doing to find and keep older workers. Other key trends include the global distribution of generations, with special emphasis on generational similarities and differences. The chapter concludes by examining the types of new jobs being created, together with career-management strategies that will allow members of all generations to capitalize on the current and emerging changes described in the chapter.
Uzi Ben-Shalom, Yechiel Klar, and Yitzhak Benbenisty
This chapter explores characteristics of sense-making in actual combat. We begin by examining the “booting up” and “rebooting” metaphors. These concepts denote a process through which commanders understand that their notion of the fighting requires adaptation. In hectic and often desperate situations, involving intense emotions and confusion, they must realize that their original frame may no longer be valid. We then explore creativity in combat, as signified by constant and free thinking. Successful commanders were focused on both the immediate task and the overall context of a fight. Finally, we look at the detrimental consequences of failing to make sense, namely, lack of participation in combat, freezing, or the repetition of futile and harmful actions.