Kurt Kraiger and Natalie Wolfson
This chapter describes methods of assessing the learning needs and evaluating the development of individuals within the context of a lifelong learning support system. Because lifelong learning is self-directed and informal in nature, we propose a needs assessment and evaluation design that is customized by participant. Participants are first assessed on various organizationally-relevant as well as lifelong-learning-relevant competencies and then linked, in a matrix format, to lifelong learning opportunities within and outside the organization that suit their competency needs. We then propose that, as learners engage in lifelong learning activities, they be periodically evaluated in terms of their improvement along different competencies. This information can be used to modify individuals’ lifelong learning program as well as, on the aggregate level, to inform decisions about how to allocate organizational resources and to provide evidence to support the system.
Lynn Gracin Collins and Sandra B. Hartog
This chapter addresses and defends a growing trend in the application of Assessment Centers as a management development strategy for adult learning and describes how innovations in technology can elevate a traditional assessment center design to allow for a comprehensive blended learning approach that supports multiple styles of learning and learners. Drawing on best practices, the chapter offers a guideline for designing and implementing an assessment center. The chapter also examines innovations in technology-enhanced assessment centers (TEACs) as a way to add to the fidelity and impact of an assessment center experience. The chapter includes client case studies and directions for practice and research.
Richard P. Keeling, Jennifer Stevens Dickson, and Trey Avery
Learning at any age is neurobiological: a process occurring through alterations in the microscopic structure and functioning of the brain. The inputs, processes, and outputs of learning are brain functions. Learning can be visualized, located, and measured through brain imaging techniques that depend methodologically on the biological nature of perception, memory, and learning. The stages of cognitive development, which represent the cumulative neurobiological effects of many interactions between persons and the world around them, are generated by multitudes of changes in cells, circuits, and networks of the brain. There is no mind without brain; the experiences of consciousness, thinking, learning, and memory are physical expressions of the work of the brain. The state of mind/brain is a major determinant of a learner’s readiness to learn; recognizing the oneness of mind and brain—and therefore of mind and body—should cause reassessment of many structures, policies, and practices in education.
Joseph W. McDonnell
This chapter explores the connection between liberal and professional education. It suggests ways to infuse broader learning objectives into business curricula as a foundation for lifelong learning and practice. Drawing on the liberal art of rhetoric, the chapter shows the use of Plato’s dialogue, the Gorgias, in an MBA class as a case study on ethical leadership. Rhetoric teaches leaders to listen and adjust to various constituencies and to develop pragmatic and persuasive policies that benefit both the organization and the community. Through such pedagogical methods and content, business schools can raise larger issues and provide students with ways to think critically, assisting the next generation of business executives to develop their moral characters and align their behaviors and decisions with justice rather than personal advantage.
Paul J. Hager
This chapter introduces key concepts, including lifelong education, lifelong learning and recurrent education, and outlines key issues that have shaped this field. First, the origins and main understandings of lifelong learning and cognate concepts from the 1970s are discussed. Commonalities across these key concepts are highlighted, as are crucial differences that create conflicting understandings. A schema is presented to compare and classify different understandings of the concepts. Second, the resurgence of interest in lifelong learning from the 1990s onward is traced, and the reasons for it, including economic competitiveness, globalization, and the focus on knowledge creation, are discussed. A novel emphasis on learning has resulted from the rise to preeminence of the concept “lifelong learning.” Diverse understandings about learning have fueled ongoing disagreements about the role and significance of lifelong learning. Some interpretations limit the scope of learning to the kinds characteristic of formal education systems. Others regard lifelong learning as covering all kinds of informal learning. These differing valuations of learning underpin much of the ongoing disputes about lifelong learning. The emerging notion of the learning society is also outlined and discussed. It features the same conceptual conflicts that marked the earlier concepts. Third, four common criticisms of lifelong learning are outlined and discussed. All criticisms are shown to make assumptions about learning that favor formal learning, while marginalizing informal learning. Thus, even today, understanding of lifelong learning and its significance is hampered by tendencies to adhere to narrow views of learning that many people develop unreflectively from their experiences of formal education.
William J. Rothwell and Anita Pane Whiteford
This chapter defines employee training, describes categories of employee training, examines the role of training in onboarding programs, and reviews the benefits of training for individuals and organizations. The chapter also describes how training programs run by organizations meet corporate needs. Training goals can be linked to strategic plans, succession plans, and changes in corporate direction. Methods of training vary and include simulations, “work out” team experiences, and distance education. Training evaluation addresses many issues, including how much people liked training, how much they learned, what they used on their jobs, and how the organization gained from the training. The future of training will require more attention to technology and to individual learning abilities.
This chapter reviews comparative research on young people’s transitions between initial education and work, focusing on countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and especially on European countries. The processes and outcomes of transition vary across countries. Researchers attribute these variations, and their persistence in the face of globalization, to institutional differences between national “transition systems.” The chapter describes four explanatory frameworks that respectively analyze transition systems in terms of characteristics of education systems, labor-market structures, linkages between education and work, and welfare regimes. It reviews typologies of transition systems derived from these explanatory frameworks and their interconnections, and it notes that no typology explains all the variation in national transition systems. It briefly reviews strategies for policy learning from cross-national comparisons of transitions. It concludes that transition systems should be understood as clusters of institutional arrangements that generate a distinctive “logic” of transitions in each country.
Two cornerstones of leadership development are 360-degree feedback and executive coaching processes. Coaching is growing rapidly as a follow-on activity to help 360 feedback participants interpret their results, facilitate goal-setting, and achieve behavior change. The purpose and benefits of 360 feedback and coaching are identified, as are the principal ways they are used to advance organizational strategic talent and performance management objectives. Best practices, including how to maximize the effectiveness of feedback and coaching interventions, are addressed. Common methods for evaluating outcomes are discussed, along with their limitations. Recommendations for future practice and research that can improve organizational and individual results are included.
Richard E. Mayer
E-learning refers to computer-delivered instruction including multimedia presentations, interactive simulations, educational games, and virtual classrooms. This chapter shows how e-learning can play an important role in lifelong learning to the extent that it is informed by research-based principles of instructional design and consistent with how people learn. The chapter provides an introduction to applying the science of learning to e-learning, summarizes a research-based theory of e-learning, summarizes research-based principles for the design of e-learning, and suggests future directions for research on e-learning.
Wendy L. Bedwell, Sallie J. Weaver, Eduardo Salas, and Mitchell Tindall
The learning landscape is changing. Learning occurs throughout the day, utilizing new content areas and different methods for distribution. The purpose of this chapter is to highlight new directions in adult learning, differentiating it from more traditional forms of learning. Toward this aim, we focus on the what (i.e., content), how (i.e., delivery mechanisms), and why (i.e., issues driving change) of new directions in adult learning. We discuss recent trends in learning content, highlighting what areas are important for adults to know in today’s dynamic work environment. Then we review new directions in learning methodology, looking at how individuals access content (i.e., key evolving formal and informal delivery mechanisms). A discussion of underlying factors driving these workforce changes is then presented, specifying the issue of why there is a need for new directions. We end with points for consideration, drawing up years of training and education literature.
Globalization and the Impact of Social Change and Economic Transformation in Lifelong Learning in Russia
Joseph I. Zajda
The chapter examines globalization and transformational social and economic changes in Russia and their implications for credentialism, learning, and skills training. Some segments of the Russian economy have recognized how knowledge innovation creates wealth. The chapter demonstrates that learning and development are influenced by past and current conditions as well as the potential for future economic development. The chapter shows the extent to which continuous learning is encouraged and supported in the Russian economy.
This chapter evaluates the impact of globalization, social change and economic transformation on adult education and lifelong learning in the Russian Federation. It begins with a brief economic and historical background to lifelong learning and adult education in terms of its significance as a feature of the Russian cultural heritage. An analysis of Ministerial education policy and curriculum changes reveals that these policies reflect neoliberal and neoconservative paradigms in the Russian economy and education between 1992 and 2008.
Rabi S. Bhagat, Annette S. McDevitt, and James C. Segovis
Since the 1960s, the liberalization of immigration laws in the United States as well as in other industrialized countries has created a significant pool of professional workers who migrate from their countries of origin to more advanced economies. A majority of these immigrant professionals are from countries that are largely collectivistic in their orientations. They encounter significant difficulties in adjusting to and acculturating in the countries of settlement. In this chapter, we describe the trend of global immigration patterns of professionals and present a theoretical framework for understanding the nature of cultural dynamics involved in the experience of acculturation and acculturative stresses. Implications for lifelong learning are discussed.
Richard Klimoski and Xiaoxiao Hu
This chapter is designed to review the multiple ways that one can improve the capacity to seek or generate self-relevant information (self-knowledge) and ways to promote regular self-awareness and (occasional) self-insight. Self-insight generally implies the level of understanding that exists relative to the nature of one’s self-system (self-definition, needs, goals, attributes), while self-knowledge relates to the accuracy of introspection about these internal states and capacities (Wilson, 2009). These are thought to be at the core of interpersonal competence, a capability absolutely essential in today’s work organization. While the “voice” of the chapter is that aimed at informing the human resources (HR) professional or practitioner, the material covered would be useful to individuals who are personally motivated to know more about how they might become more effective interpersonally through efforts at improving self-knowledge and self-insight.
Influences of National Culture on Continuous Learning: Implications for Learning Objectives and Performance Management
National culture influences the experience of continuous learning for individuals; this has implications for how the multinational organization might support continuous learning and consequent behavioral change. The chapter examines these influences through the comparative frameworks of national culture developed by Hofstede ( 1980 ; 2001 ) and in the GLOBE project (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004). What cultural differences mean for the objectives and management of continuous learning is explored by contrasting job competence and performance management in Confucian Asia (e.g., China and Japan) with that of Anglo societies such as Great Britain and the United States. Insight into how multinational firms might support continuous learning and behavioral change is offered. To be effective in a fast-evolving, global environment, firms must strike a balance between consistency of global imperatives and adaptation to local needs.
Sally Gabb, Howard Tinberg, and Ron Weisberger
The current study applies the developmental learning theory of Robert Kegan to the community college classroom. In focusing on the work of community college students, the authors will reflect on the observed cognitive abilities of incoming students and proceed to chart their growth as learners. While acknowledging that community college students represent an extremely wide range of age and experience, the authors chose to study “emerging adults,” those students who, in their late teens, are just at the cusp of achieving a complex view of themselves and others. The authors hope to show that such learners stand a much better chance of evolving into complex thinkers and effective problem-solvers when given a support structure (a bridge) to smooth their way.
This chapter distills leadership development programs into their critical components. Alignment between individual behavior and organization behavior is necessary in advance of the implementation of any developmental intervention. This alignment is viewed as a necessary but not sufficient condition for change. Development is examined as a by-product of a dialectic that is constructed purposefully. Delivered in many forms, the dialectic serves as the fulcrum that brings transformational power to leadership development programs. Leadership development is recognized as a process incorporating experiences that are crafted to compel behavioral, emotional, and intellectual transformation.
Mark P. Mostert and Lucinda S. Spaulding
Similar to school-aged children with a learning disability (LD), adults with LD experience unique challenges as they transition from high school and enter postsecondary institutions and the workplace. This chapter discusses the characteristics of adults with LD and their learning challenges as they adapt to increasing demands in higher education and the workforce. Laws related to accommodating adults with LD in postsecondary institutions and work settings are addressed, and the skills and strategies necessary for adults with LD to successfully transition from dependence to independence are also detailed.
Users of wireless technology are contextual learners. Wireless users learn from instant-and-anywhere feedback supporting informal roles of youth and adults or formal roles of students and employees. Just as learning contexts may be distinguished by kinds of wireless feedback, wireless users can also be differentiated into kinds of contextual learners who use different kinds of wireless technologies. Hence, we shall delineate how wireless services support learning contexts and technologies differentiate contextual learners.
Learning Gender: The Effects of Gender-Role Stereotypes on Women’s Lifelong Learning and Career Advancement Opportunities
The effects of gender-role stereotypes on women’s lifelong learning, earning, and career advancement opportunities are examined. It is proposed that “learning gender” is a critical component of lifelong learning. Based on a review of the literature, it was concluded that gender-role stereotypes create impediments for girls and women worldwide in terms of access to education, the topics they choose to study, and their career choices. These stereotypes also result in large and inequitable disparities in women’s pay, promotion, and career advancement opportunities. Recommendations for actions that individuals, organizations, and society can take to remedy the inequities and “shatter” the glass ceiling are provided. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the challenges inherent in promoting changes within a gendered society.
Richard E. Boyatzis
Emotional and social intelligence competencies distinguish effective performance among managers, leaders, and professionals. People in power (i.e., leading and helping) roles infect others with their emotional state through the contagion of emotion. The consequences of using emotional and social intelligence competencies are amplified in work and social settings. Although most attempts to develop these competencies at work and in graduate education fail, there is longitudinal evidence that they can be sustainably developed. Intentional Change Theory explains the physiological and psychological processes that result in significant improvement in these competencies. The three most distinctive aspects of this model, in contrast to typical approaches, include: (1) fostering the person’s ideal self, their personal vision, and their dream before exposing them to any data feedback; (2) using coaches to create relationships that help someone through the process; and (3) developing social identity groups that create peer coaching relationships and sustain the developments.