Stefan Mainka, Ralph Spintge, and Michael Thaut
Music in the acute medical setting or in neurological rehabilitation is used functionally to facilitate and target specific therapeutic goals. Neurologic music therapy (NMT) and music medicine are described as effective evidence-based treatment approaches in sensorimotor and cognitive rehabilitation, as well as in therapy for acute and chronic pain. There is good clinical evidence for NMT techniques in sensorimotor rehabilitation for various diagnoses such as stroke, Parkinson’s, or traumatic brain injury. Music has also been shown to be an effective medium in the treatment of pain. The direct influence on acute pain is getting more and more attention in the field of surgery. Patients with chronic pain require specially designed and sequential therapeutic strategies. The therapeutic mechanisms for NMT and music medicine are becoming more and more understood, so that the treatment techniques can be refined to meet medical needs in an optimal way.
Timothy R. Elliott and Joseph F. Rath
As one of the oldest psychology specialties active in interdisciplinary medical centers and health and public policy, rehabilitation psychology focuses on the optimal adjustment of individuals with disabilities, their families, and primary support systems. The wide array of circumstances confronting individuals with disabilities demands a broad skill set and flexibility in the rehabilitation psychologist’s approach. Throughout its 50-year history, the field has been shaped and informed by theory and research drawn from other academic and practice areas of psychology including social, clinical, and counseling psychology, rehabilitation counseling, behavioral neuroscience, and neuropsychology. This rich heritage contributes to the specialty’s resilience and potential to address current challenges facing American health care, including the aging of the baby boom generation and the unprecedented numbers of wounded veterans returning to society with injuries that may require life-long services.