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Abraham and Authenticity  

Reuven Firestone

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2015
The Abrahamic religions recognize Abraham as the first to arrive at the truth of monotheism and live out the ideal relationship with God. He is the archetype of the stalwart religious ... More

Achaemenid Political History and Sources  

Amélie Kuhrt

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This article provides an outline of the Achaemenid empire’s political history followed by an overview of the diverse sources for understanding some of its institutions. Despite inherent ... More

Ancient Versions and Textual Transmission of the Old Testament  

Gerard J. Norton

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article first gives a schematic outline of the history of the Hebrew text in four stages. It then presents the elements that readers will meet in modern editions of that text. These ... More

Apocalypticism and Messianism  

Michael A. Knibb

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The beliefs of the movement that lies behind the scrolls were influenced by the eschatological ideas of the early Enochic writings and by the Book of Daniel, and although the movement does ... More

Archaeology  

John R. Bartlett

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses archaeology's impact on biblical scholarship, especially over the last two centuries. It describes the Christian pilgrims, explorers, travellers, map makers, and ... More

Archaeology  

John R. Bartlett

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the contributions of archaeology to biblical scholarship. Biblical scholarship needs the archaeologist as it needs the anthropologist, the epigraphist, the ... More

Assessing the Text‐Critical Theories of the Hebrew Bible after Qumran  

Ronald S. Hendel

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The biblical texts from Qumran are the oldest manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible, dating from the mid-third century BCE through the first century CE. Prior to the discovery of the Qumran ... More

Assyrian and Babylonian Sources  

Martti Nissinen

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This article introduces the Assyrian and Babylonian sources relevant to the Old Testament historical books. The corpus of Assyrian sources consists mainly of royal inscriptions between the ... More

Authoritative Scriptures and the Dead Sea Scrolls  

Timothy H. Lim

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The approach advocated in this article is the understanding of canon as authoritative literature that is binding for the Qumran community. The distinctive features of this approach are: ... More

The Classical Sources on the Essenes and the Scrolls Communities  

Joan E. Taylor

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The nature of groups named in classical sources as ‘Essenes’ was considered in scholarship of Second Temple Judaism long before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, but discussion of the ... More

Constructing Ancient Judaism from the Scrolls  

Martin Goodman

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Most of the Dead Sea Scrolls can be classified as religious documents of one kind or another, and all the studies since 1947 that have been devoted to their significance can be ... More

The Continuity of Biblical Interpretation in the Qumran Scrolls and Rabbinic Literature  

Bilhah Nitzan

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Considering Qumranic hermeneutical systems with regard to form, this article distinguishes between ‘internal interpretation’ integrated within rewritten biblical books, such as the Temple ... More

The Contribution of the Qumran Scrolls to the Study of Ancient Jewish Liturgy  

Daniel K. Falk

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Prayer as a service to God by the people is one of the most far reaching of religious practices, forming a central part of the religious practice of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; yet ... More

Critical Issues in the Investigation of the Scrolls and the New Testament  

Jörg Frey

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
From the very earliest period after the first discoveries, the Qumran scrolls have been of major interest to New Testament (NT) scholars, and, in retrospect, the impact of the scrolls has ... More

David in Reception History  

Dominik Markl

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
David is one of the most colorful figures of the Bible and of the entire literature that has come down to us from antiquity. David’s characterization as a sensitive musician, a violent ... More

Deborah in Reception History  

Joy A. Schroeder

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
Judges 4–5 features the protagonist Deborah, a prophet, judge, war leader, singer, and “mother in Israel” (Judg. 5:7.) Interpreters treated Deborah in literary, musical, and artistic works ... More

The Deuteronomistic History as Literature of Trauma  

David Janzen

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
The study of trauma in early twentieth-century psychoanalysis concluded that trauma survivors have been overwhelmed by traumatic events and so are unable to experience them and form ... More

The Distinctive Roles of the Prophets in the Deuteronomistic History and the Chronicler’s History  

Marvin A. Sweeney

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This article examines the distinctive roles of the prophets in the Deuteronomistic History (Joshua; Judges; Samuel; Kings) and the Chronicler’s History (Chronicles). It posits that the ... More

Divine and Human Violence in the Historical Books  

Douglas S. Earl

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
It has become commonplace to characterize the historical books using the concept of violence and to regard this characterization as posing a problem demanding a solution, usually ... More

Early Israel’s Origins, Settlement, and Ethnogenesis  

Ann E. Killebrew

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
The search for biblical Israel in the textual and archaeological record has been a focus of scholarly research for over a century. Using as their starting point the books of Exodus, Joshua, ... More

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