Kim Micah Eun-Kya
This chapter searches the new identity of Post-Anglicanism beyond Anglicanism in the age of the global empires. The British Empire and Anglicanism were a two-wheeled vehicle during the colonial period. Anglicanism can be understood as justifying a ruling ideology in colonial ages just as the Pax Romana justified the Roman Empire under the slogan of the expansion of the Kingdom of God. This can be called the Pax Anglicana. How then can Post-Anglicanism frame the future of the Communion? It needs to take seriously today’s global contexts in the light of Minjung (the oppressed) in Asia, Latin America, Africa. For this we need to read the Bible against the background of the society and religion of ancient Israel and their links with ancient empires. And it has to reconstruct Anglicanism in terms of justice, peace, and religious dialogue against the global empire.
The history and continuing presence of British colonialism are inseparable from the past and present shape of the Anglican world. This has meant the spreading of a localized, specific form of Reformation Christianity in domains of the former British Empire, and the negotiation of how its local theology would interact with the multitude of local languages, cultures, and socio-religious practices. The reality of geopolitical, religio-cultural contextualities continues to challenge the resources of Anglicanism. This chapter explores some of the hermeneutics, methods, and varieties of cultural diversity involved in incarnating different varieties of Anglicanism. It argues that the work of moving beyond ‘civilizational confinement’ involves a theological hermeneutics that honours multiple layers of identity and culture, and necessitates the difficult work of restoring and transforming relationships.
This chapter explores Anglican ecumenical engagement. After a brief historical survey of Anglican involvement in the global ecumenical movement, it focuses on the mostly bilateral ecumenical discussions which have taken place since the Second World War, considering relations between Anglicans and Old Catholics, Lutherans, Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravians, Methodists, Reformed, Baptist, United and Charismatic/Pentecostal Churches, offering a snapshot of the state of these relationships in 2012. It concludes that ecumenical dialogue has proved effective in helping churches to know and understand each other better, but that this level of discussion can feel unconnected from the lived reality of individual Christians, particularly in contexts in which confessional boundaries are no longer experienced as clear lines of demarcation. Increasingly, the focus of ecumenical encounter is on shared mission.
Proceeding from autobiography, this chapter analyses the multiple dimensions that influenced the formation of the Church of South India. Such a post-Anglican ecumenical movement was prompted by drawing away from the receding shadow of the British Empire and moving towards other native communities emerging at the dawn of Indian Independence. Against this backdrop, the chapter examines the current realignments taking place within the Anglican Communion. The emergence of ‘transnational compactism’, in which collaborations are pursued with like-minded churches, are not the same as previous movements of ecumenism. What then are the directions open for the Anglican Communion? ‘Cosmo-transAnglicanism’ is offered as a model. Constructively working with Christology, a re-appropriation of Christ as the reconciling and compassionate One, is put forward as a challenge to both the Uniting Churches and the not-so-united churches within the Anglican Communion.
Imperialism and colonialism have been key determinants for the geography of Anglicanism. This is evident in developments within the British Isles, in North America and North American expansion, in India, and in nineteenth- and twentieth-century British expansion worldwide. In much of this, the mission agencies, in particular SPCK, SPG, CMS, and UMCA, have played an important role. Characteristic impacts included settlement, slavery and indentured labour, displacement and segregation. The civility/barbarity dichotomy made for a persisting fault-line, reinforced by racism. Anglican developments, including the Lambeth Conferences, shaped and were shaped by globalization.
The character and identity of the Anglican Church in Australasia arises by virtue of its establishment as a colonial church over 20,000 kilometres from England. This chapter first offers a brief overview of some of the founding impulses of colonial Anglicanism and their trajectories into contemporary Anglicanism in Australasia. Given the availability recent historical introductions to Anglicanism in the region, the chapter focuses on those particular aspects of the development of Anglicanism that serve the more theological intent of the second part of the chapter. In this second section the theme of place as a formative factor in ecclesiology is examined. The chapter provides a basis for further exploration of a contextual ecclesiology for Anglicanism from a southern hemisphere perspective. It highlights the importance of a sense of place as a powerful though often unrecognized shaper of the identity and mission of the Church of Jesus Christ.
This chapter discusses the development of Anglicanism through mission and argues that mission is essential to the church’s existence and flourishing. It proposes that the church’s mission has two aspects: the deepening and revitalization of the lives of those already within the Christian community, and the extension of the Gospel beyond the boundaries of that community. Among the key issues covered are the mission in the Reformation era, Evangelicals and abolition of slavery, mission under colonialism, as well as specific regions such as India, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Madagascar, Quebec and Haiti. The chapter then considers the modern mission by discussing the Nigerian experience, the struggle against apartheid, and the rebirth of Chinese Christianity. The last section allows the reader to consider the mission beyond Anglicanism.
Philip Wickeri and Paul Kwong
This chapter introduces contextualization in the Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui (Anglican Church) and its significance for Hong Kong and Macau and for the Anglican communion. We seek to be heuristic and probing, not definitive or comprehensive. After a description of the Hong Kong context and a brief survey of the history of the church, the chapter considers some key areas of concern: the contextualization of theology and liturgy and the decision to compile a new Book of Common Prayer, the church’s mission in social welfare and education; work in the Macau Missionary Area; and deepening relationships with the church in mainland China. The contextualization of Anglicanism in Hong Kong and Macau, may be seen as an issue of ‘identity-in-community’, which means that we need to learn to embrace not exclude one another in life together. As ‘Hongkongese’ Christians living together in a globalized metropolis, we need to affirm both the multiplicity and the hybridity of our identities.
This chapter on Sri Lankan Anglicanism looks at the theological basis for contextualization, identifies some Sri Lankan realities, and provides an overview of the history of Christianity in Sri Lanka with a particular emphasis on Anglicanism and its impact. It shows the roots of contextualization in the indigenization movement based on incarnation, and then looks at different aspects of Anglican church life that have been impacted by contextualization such as the church’s ministry and leadership, self-government, architecture and religious art, liturgy, and fundamentally its radical ‘self-theologizing’ with a focus on the role of Bishop Lakshman Wickremesinghe. In conclusion the chapter argues that a distinct ‘Sri Lankan Anglicanism’ exists and asks whether the Anglican Church of Ceylon has fully embraced this distinct identity or is still captive to a colonial past.
Michael Ipgrave and Clare Amos
This chapter explores the structural untidiness of Anglican interfaith relations, especially with Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, which are variously located alongside mission, ecumenical, or social responsibility work in national church or diocesan offices. However, such structural untidiness reflects the richness of interfaith engagement within the Anglican Communion and its creative interaction with and important contribution to these three fields of work. Within the framework provided by engagement with mission,, and social responsibility the chapter offers a historical survey, from the late eighteenth century to the present day, of key figures and trends in Anglican work among people of other faiths. It draws attention to the influential report produced by the Network for Inter Faith Concerns of the Anglican Communion (NIFCON), Generous Love the Truth of the Gospel and the Call to Dialogue (2008), and the motif of theological generosity which has marked out Anglican work in this field.
This chapter describes the origin and development of the concept of ‘missionary bishop’ from the mid-nineteenth century. Charting the origin of the term in the American Episcopal Church as it expanded westwards, which saw the appointment of the first ‘missionary bishops’ whose role was to plant churches, it shows how its own traditions of ‘primitive’ episcopacy chimed in with the elevation of the ‘apostolical succession’ by the Oxford Movement, which again emphasized the importance of the early church. This understanding of episcopacy allowed non-established missionary bishops to be sent across the British Empire, and even beyond the realms of the British Crown. The chapter concludes that a ‘primitive’ missionary episcopate was to some degree a cypher for a non-established, ‘free’ form of Anglicanism which created an independent ecclesial identity that nevertheless did little to challenge the wider imperial project.