Ellen T. Armour
This chapter considers analyses offered by three important feminist scholars, working in different religious traditions, who attend to specific forms of women's religiosity. In Changing the Subject: Women's Discourses and Feminist Theology, Mary McClintock Fulkerson attempts to carve out a place within feminist theology for Christian women who do not consider themselves feminist. In The Hammer and the Flute: Women, Power and Spirit Possession, Mary Keller's analysis of the phenomenon of spirit possession, which affects many more women than men, becomes a site in which to reflect anew on questions of gender and religious subjectivity. In Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject, anthropologist Saba Mahmood finds that the issues raised by her study of Egyptian women involved in an Islamic renewal movement challenge certain feminist orthodoxies. Taking each author in turn, the chapter first traces the particular contours of the religious phenomenon each analyzes and shows how they reframe religious subjectivity. The final section brings the three essays together and describes what avenues they open up for constructive feminist theology in a global context.
This chapter explores from a Womanist perspective the complexities of how commingled systems, texts, and violence shape lives, stories, and experiences of the sacred across the globe, beginning by presenting a methodology and exploring concepts of narrative, theology, and globalization. It then analyzes an assortment of texts, noting points of ambiguity, especially in the intersections between story, belief, and worldview. The selected texts represent a variety of narratives or modes of expression that convey tensions between inclusion and exclusion, and which pertain to community development, yet are not often used together in feminist or Womanist analysis. These texts include: (1) The Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1–9); (2) selected chapters from the 1948 United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which focus on what happens to human bodies—living bio-texts or embodied narratives in and of themselves); (3) the song, “We are the World” (1985); and (4) human bio-texts, such as bodies of victims of sex trafficking, sexual assault, and rape as an act of war.
Rebecca Y. Kim
This chapter examines the close nexus between migration and religion in the Korean American Christian community. After a review of the historical connection between immigration and the Korean church in the United States, it considers the migration and conversion experiences of Korean American Protestants. In particular, it discusses why and how Koreans are more religiously engaged as Christians in the United States than they are in South Korea.