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General Deterrence  

Robert Apel and Daniel S. Nagin

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article begins with a discussion of key concepts of deterrence. Section II turns to empirical research on general deterrence. It considers the deterrent effect of the penultimate and ... More

Sentencing Policies and Practices in California  

Michael Vitiello

This chapter traces sentencing policies and practices in California, including the decision to abandon indeterminate sentencing and the enactment of a sentencing reform statute called ... More

Sentencing Policies and Practices in Minnesota  

Richard S. Frase

This essay evaluates the origins, purposes, operation, and evolution of Minnesota’s sentencing guidelines system, implemented in 1980. Topics examined include key guidelines provisions, ... More

Sentencing Policies and Practices in Pennsylvania: Four Decades of Change  

Jeffery T. Ulmer and Julia A. Laskorunsky

This article outlines the history and evolution of Pennsylvania’s sentencing policies and practices since the adoption of its sentencing guidelines in 1978. Pennsylvania’s sentencing ... More

Sentencing Policies and Practices in Wisconsin  

Michael M. O'Hear

This essay provides an overview of sentencing policies and practices in the state of Wisconsin and considers their impact on the state’s imprisonment rate. Current policies and practices ... More

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