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Ancient Near Eastern City-States  

Steven J. Garfinkle

Published in print:
Feb 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the history of the formation of city-states in the Fertile Crescent. It provides a working definition of city-state in both spatial and social terms, and describes ... More

Classical and Near Eastern Slavery in the First Millennium bce  

David M. Lewis

Twentieth-century scholarship, guided in particular by the views of M. I. Finley, saw Greece and Rome as the only true ‘slave societies’ of antiquity: slavery in the Near East was of minor ... More

Greek and Roman Slaving in Comparative Ancient Perspective: The Level of Integration  

Catherine Hezser

Graeco-Roman slavery can be properly understood only when compared with slave practices in other ancient societies. This chapter shows that in ancient Israel, Egypt, and Babylonia slavery ... More

Iranian Empires  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Published in print:
Feb 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter explores the history of the formation of the Iranian Empires, identifying the major phases in state formation, which include the Achaemenid Empire, Iran in Hellenistic times, ... More

Jewish States  

Seth Schwartz

Published in print:
Feb 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the history of the formation of Jewish states, discussing the geography and phenomenology of the Jewish states, and the relation between ethnos and state. It ... More

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