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The Archaeology of War  

Simon James

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter concentrates on the contribution of archaeology to understanding aspects of ancient warfare, archaeological methodology, and its achievements and problems in the context of ... More

Arming Greeks for Battle  

Eero Jarva

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter explores the Greek armored infantrymen and the weapons they carried. The hoplite shield is called Argive. The Boeotian is a shield that appears on seventh- and sixth-century ... More

Arming Romans for Battle  

Duncan B. Campbell

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter reports on the understanding on Roman armor, specifically discussing the development of Roman arms and armor. Archaeology offers actual examples of Roman arms and armor. Polybius ... More

The Athenian Expedition to Sicily  

Lee L. Brice

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter discusses the Sicilian Expedition by Athens. Athens sent a large military force to Sicily in what has come to be called the Sicilian Expedition. The expedition, which grew ... More

The Business of War: Mercenaries  

Matthew Trundle

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter investigates the mercenaries in the Greek world. Mercenaries became stained with the brush of tyranny. The connection of tyrants and mercenaries continued into the Hellenistic ... More

The Classical Greek Experience  

John W. I. Lee

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter introduces the diverse troops, equipment, formations, and tactics that characterized the period from about 500–350 BC, exploring non-Greek as well as Greek military forces. ... More

Demetrius “the Besieger” and Hellenistic Warfare  

Thomas R. Martin

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter describes the ideas of Demetrius Poliorcetes on Hellenistic warfare, specifically taking the conventional position that Hellenistic warfare designates warfare as conducted and ... More

The Development and Training of Cavalry in Greece and Rome  

Ann Hyland

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter explores the development and training of Greek and Roman cavalries. Xenophon discussed Greek and Roman cavalry training, and much of his advice is present in modern horsemanship ... More

Epaminondas at Leuctra, 371 b.c.  

John Buckler

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter addresses the time of Theban general Epaminondas at Leuctra, specifically reviewing his battle in Leuctra. Leuctra in 371 BC was established as one of the most dramatic and ... More

Epilogue: The Legacy of War in the Classical World  

Thomas G. Palaima and Lawrence A. Tritle

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Mar 2019

In this short discussion Tom Palaima explores the literary impact of classical war, warriors, and authors into the modern world, while L. Tritle traces more historical traditions.

Finding the Enemy: Military Intelligence  

Frank Russell

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter analyzes tactical intelligence, following a division by posture: offensive and mobile, and defensive or localized. There was an increase in the use of vanguards among the ... More

Generalship: Leadership and Command  

Rosemary Moore

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter focuses on military leadership and military responsibilities. Primarily, the phalanx has been initially employed for territorial defense. Prior to the Peloponnesian Wars, ... More

The Germanic and Danubian Transfrontier Peoples  

Peter S. Wells

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter explores the character of the societies beyond the frontier and the ways in which those peoples responded to their interactions with the Roman world. Marcomanni, Quadi, Cherusci, ... More

Greece: Winning Ways in Warfare  

Paul C. Millett

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter assesses the Greek writing on the subject of warfare. The plausibility of Demosthenes' presentation of Philip's waging of war is also addressed. The issues of orality and ... More

Greek Rituals of War  

Daniel P. Tompkins

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the Greek military ritual of war. It evaluates the recent interpretations of military ritual, indicating that the term “ritual” in the present day has taken on so ... More

Greeks and Achaemenid Persians  

Bruce Laforse

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter addresses the battle against Achaemenid Persians. Shortly before the fateful battle of Cunaxa, Cyrus the Younger told his Greek officers why they fought and how their lives ... More

Greeks Under Siege: Challenges, Experiences, and Emotions  

Angelos Chaniotis

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter deals with the significance of siege, not primarily as a phenomenon of ancient military tactics and warfare, but of cultural and social history, concentrating on the ... More

The Hellenistic World at War: Stagnation or Development?  

John Serrati

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter describes the effects of warfare in the Hellenistic period, which influenced nearly every aspect of life for people living in the Greek East at the time. The phalanx remained ... More

Horses for War: Breeding and Keeping a Warhorse  

Ann Hyland

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the breeding and sustaining of warhorses. Horses refer to power in military and economic fields, and were sacrificed to the Sun before battle. Xenophon described the ... More

Imperial Rome at War  

Phyllis Culham

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter discusses the war in imperial Rome. The legions in the Principate were highly protected assets, even during an aggressive advance. It is observed that tactical victory on one ... More

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