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Atmosphere and Outer Space  

Ian H. Rowlands

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
What is ‘atmosphere’ and what is ‘outer space’? The term ‘atmosphere’ is sometimes used interchangeably with ‘air’. Moreover, it is often assumed that ‘outer space’ is simply the area ... More

Biological Resources  

Rosemary Rayfuse

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
In the past century, a large number of bilateral, regional, and global agreements have been adopted relating to the protection, preservation, conservation, and management of the Earth's ... More

Business  

Steven R. Ratner

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Business has a central role in international environmental law. Both treaties and treatises regard private economic actors as secondary players, and see states as the overwhelmingly ... More

Carbon Leakage and the Migration of Private CO2 Emitters to other Jurisdictions  

Andrew Shoyer, Jung-ui Sul, and Colette van der Ven

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter examines the phenomenon of carbon leakage, which is an increase in carbon emissions as a result of businesses moving to other states without carbon reduction measures. ... More

The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico  

David Freestone and Clive Schofield

Print publication date:
Mar 2015
Online publication date:
Jun 2016
This chapter assesses the legal regime of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. It first examines regional maritime claims before reviewing marine activities, environment, and resources ... More

Changing Role of The State  

Thilo Marauhn

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Since the early days of modern public international law, the state has been the most important subject thereof. However, today, it is neither the sole, nor necessarily the primary, actor ... More

Climate Change and Damages  

Christina Voigt

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter explores the legal understanding of climate change damages in public international law. It shows that international law has been dealing with transboundary damages since its ... More

Climate Change and International Law beyond the UNFCCC  

Alan Boyle and Navraj Singh Ghaleigh

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter discusses the various shortcomings of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. As a ‘framework convention’, the UNFCCC itself ... More

Climate Change-related Displacement of Persons  

Jane McAdam

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter examines the scope of existing international law to address ‘climate change-related displacement’, a term used to describe movement where the impacts of climate change affect ... More

Climate, Oceans, and the Law of Special and General Adaptation  

U. Rashid Sumaila

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter describes the literature of adaptation law in the context of international ocean governance. Adaptation law consists of rules aimed at minimizing the social costs associated ... More

Common Areas, Common Heritage, and Common Concern  

Jutta Brunnée

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article examines three concepts that have emerged to respond to collective environmental concerns:‘common areas’, ‘common heritage’, and ‘common concern’. As will become apparent, the ... More

Common Concern of Humankind  

Frederiech Soltau

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter examines the various common concerns of humankind. The concept has found its most explicit reference in relation to climate change, in the United Nations Framework Convention ... More

Compliance Procedures  

Jan Klabbers

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer was among the first international agreements in which a specific non-compliance procedure was envisaged, and it is ... More

Compliance Theory: Compliance, Effectiveness, and Behaviour Change in International Environmental Law  

Ronald B. Mitchell

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
International lawyers and legal scholars often assess the effects of international environmental agreements (IEAs) in terms of the extent to which states comply with their commitments. ... More

Compliance under the Evolving Climate Change Regime  

Sebastian Oberthür

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter assesses the ways in which compliance has been addressed under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. It highlights the ... More

Conserving Marine Biodiversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction: Co-Evolution and Interaction with the Law of the Sea  

Robin Warner

Print publication date:
Mar 2015
Online publication date:
Jun 2016
This chapter explores key normative features of the legal and institutional framework for areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) and their applicability to the conservation of marine ... More

Critical Approaches  

Karin Mickelson

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article explores some of the critical approaches relevant to international environmental law, and considers how they have been deployed to analyse and critique the underlying ... More

Different Types Of Norms In International Environmental Law Policies, Principles, And Rules  

Ulrich Beyerlin

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the various ‘twilight’ norms at the bottom of the normative hierarchy of modern international environmental law, such as ‘precaution’, ‘polluter pays’, ‘common but ... More

An Economic Theory of International Environmental Law  

Scott Barrett

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
International law, of which international environmental law is a part, shapes and constrains state behaviour. Essentially, it tells states what they are permitted to do, what they are ... More

Economics and International Climate Change Law  

Navraj Singh Ghaleigh

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter presents an economic analysis of climate change and international climate change law. From an economic perspective, the environment becomes a scarce resource which must be ... More

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