Pierre Berthon, Philip DesAutels, M. Brian Donnellan, and Cynthia Clark Williams
This article highlights the paradoxes of information technology (IT) and IS and the promise of these as one of the solutions to our ecological dilemma. Some of these paradoxes include the promise of efficiency gains, of cleanliness, of education, and of community. It explores Green IT by focusing on a neglected level of information systems analysis: information views, or ‘ways of thinking’ about information technology and systems. It suggests that it is this ignored conceptual level that has in part contributed to the IT paradoxes. Specifically, this article differentiates instrumental versus emergent thinking about technology, and identifies three paradigms that suggest very different uses of information technology to achieve the goal of Green IT in the service of sustainability. Thus, rather than merely exploiting nature, it proposes viewing IT in terms either of preserving, returning to, or transforming nature.
Questions of literacy raise questions of the nature of the relationship between what goes on on-line and what off-line. A wide range of areas where this agenda has been identified has been reviewed, but in each case it still needs further discussion: in e-commerce, in journalism, in civil society, but above all in the fine grain of action in everyday life. It has been argued that it is still the case that thinking is dominated by a kind of ‘two-realm’ approach, which will consistently fail to understand the intensity of their interrelationship. What is required is a political economy which stresses the materiality of power inscribed across both domains, and a broadly ethnographic perspective, where, likewise, there is every intention of exploring the mutual contextualization of life which is simultaneously both on-line and off.
There seem to be basically two different ways of managing this problematic—one which relies on the principle of promoting “knowledge base similarity,” and a second one that favors the principle of promoting “well-connectedness of knowledge bases.” This article starts by outlining these approaches and argues that the latter one, which is associated with the idea of understanding projects as “knowledge-collectivities”, provides a fruitful point of departure for thinking about knowledge integration in many project settings. Second, it introduces a contingency framework to show how this general approach would cover a variety of knowledge integration modes and project management contexts. Third, it illustrates part of this contingency framework empirically using excerpts from two case studies taken from the literature, a mobile telephone project and a drug development project. Fourth, it specifically addresses the project management features and propose that traditional concerns regarding project goals, the view of deviations, etc. should be seen as being intertwined with the issue of knowledge integration. Finally, it suggests that continued research efforts should be devoted to advancing our ability to match a set of congruent knowledge integration and project management features to the demands of specific project contexts.
Phil Graham and Abby Ann Goodrum
As a field of study, media literacy emerged along with the study of radio propaganda in the 1930s. More recently it became a field of research that has responded to the television saturated consumer cultures of the late-1960s onwards. Unlike literacies of pre-electronic media environments, those that have been studied within electronic environments have been almost solely concerned with analytical ways of reading multimedia texts. In contrast, literacies in the written word have typically involved the production of written texts as integral to curricula. The new media environment provides opportunities and challenges for research in new media literacies, not the least of which is understanding what it means for people to have a widespread potential to write themselves into global, multimediated conversations. This not only involves technical, cultural, discursive, and aesthetic knowledges, it also involves the need to be politically and economically literate in the implications of a dispersed, participatively produced, multimedia environment as distinct from the ‘broadcast’ literacies of past media environments. This article situates new media literacies in an historical framework, emphasizing the close connections among technology, culture, discourse, and related changes in political economic structures.
Ronald E. Rice and Ryan Fuller
This chapter exposes the prominence of different theoretical perspectives on the Internet. A broad scope of primary and secondary theories has been increasingly used to understand the social and communicative aspects of the Internet and the increasingly specialized areas being developed by Internet researchers, such as around social media. The chapters published in the first half of the period (2000–04) are compared to those in the second period of the sample (2005–09). It is observed that the media attributes, the public sphere, and community have been the most popular theory themes. There are also opportunities for further theoretical development in the areas of credibility/trust, participatory media/users, relational management, and cultural differences.