This chapter deals with shariah in Europe from two different angles. It links the debate about the application of shariah norms on European soil with the legal aspects regarding the scope and limits of such application. Both the term and the perception of shariah in Europe are clarified. The second part of the chapter deals with the legal situation in Europe regarding the formal and informal application of shariah rules, be they religious or legal ones, in different fields of law, such as civil law, public law, penal law, and public international law. The chapter concludes by summarizing observations and remarking on research desiderata.