Recent work by analytic philosophers on the Trinity takes a mysterious 5th-century document as its starting point, accepting widespread but inaccurate narratives about the history of Trinity theories. This article summarizes the Platonic influence on ancient theologies and describes the rise of transcendent triads, and eventually the idea of a tripersonal God. Recent Trinity theories (positive mysterianism, Trinity monotheism, relative-identity approaches, and “social” theories) are explained as built to respond in various ways to a type of anti-trinitarian argument. But since each recent application of logic and metaphysics to the theology of the Trinity is problematic, it is argued that another look at the minority unitarian report is warranted.
This article explores Nietzsche’s notions about family. It considers the religious and personal temperaments of Nietzsche’s father and two grandfathers, which form a striking background to his own radical thoughts about religion. It suggests that Nietzsche began to turn away from the Christian faith after witnessing, at age four, the drawn-out and agonizing death of his father. The experience of growing up in a household filled with women (mother, sister, two aunts, grandmother, and housekeeper) also sheds light on Nietzsche’s infamous quips about women, on his claim to “know women,” and on his sometimes exaggerated masculinity.
This article examines Schopenhauer’s influence on Nietzsche’s work. It considers how Nietzsche adopted some of his central ideas from Schopenhauer, how he exploited some of Schopenhauer’s positions to suit his own purposes, and how he developed some of his ideas as alternatives to Schopenhauerian positions. Nietzsche’s first published book, The Birth of Tragedy, is based on a Schopenhauerian metaphysical framework. Schopenhauer’s principle of individuation applicable to the world of representations is the key element in Nietzsche’s concept of the Apollonian and Schopenhauer’s principle of the undifferentiated nature of ultimate reality of the will is the key element in Nietzsche’s concept of the Dionysian.