Eric Racine and Veljko Dubljević
This article reviews different points of interest in neuroethics. These are exemplified by the three broad areas of neuroscience research—neuroimaging, neuropharmacology, and neurostimulation—and the major ethical questions with which they are associated. It considers primary research in neuroscience, ethics, and philosophy and identifies some important questions meriting further attention, primarily in the context of healthcare but also beyond, in the broad areas of education, business, and the military. A heavily debated trend, that of the enhancement use of neuropharmaceuticals and neurostimulation devices, is also discussed, especially in relationship to cognitive enhancement and neuroethics. In addition, emerging forms of neurostimulation are considered with respect to effectiveness and ethics.
Sara Goering and Eran Klein
Neurotechnologies under development are often explicitly justified in terms of the advantages they will provide to disabled people. Thus, it would seem important to know what disabled people want from current and future iterations of these technologies and how they experience the functional barriers the technologies are meant to address. Ensuring that disabled people want what is designed requires attention to “end user” needs and values. The paradigmatic form of end user input in device design focuses on device acceptability, usually happens late in the development process, and is oriented to economic viability. But seeking out and taking seriously the perspectives of disabled people (potential end users) should be grounded at least in part by considerations of justice, including both distribution and recognition.