Following the advent of Islam, conquerors and conquered developed a new art music whose great success arose through the integration of disparate elements and a subtle process of Arabization. The new art is described in writings of the epoch as intertwined with related areas of knowledge. Quite early, a hostile attitude appeared on the part of radical jurists and theologians, who argued against the harmful influence of music and its devilish origin. They derived their evidence from the Qur’an and the hadīth (Traditions of the Prophet). In their opinion on art music, the partisans of the prohibition described other forms of sound combinations such as folk songs and the chanting or cantillation of Qur’ān as “non-music.” Unlike the hostile attitude of the radical theologians, the Sufi mystical orders exalt in their doctrine music and dance as an essential and vital part of their beliefs and ritual.