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Ancient Chinese Mathematics  

Alexei Volkov

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The chapter studies nine long-known extant Chinese mathematical texts, and three recently excavated texts, all composed prior to the beginning of the Sui 隋 dynasty (581–618 ce). Most of ... More

Astral Sciences in Ancient China  

Xu Fengxian

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The chapter studies ancient Chinese astronomy, which focused on computing and predicting the movements of the heavens (天 tian), the sun, moon, stars, and asterisms, which was the duty of ... More

Astral Sciences of Ancient Mesopotamia  

Francesca Rochberg

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The chapter explores Mesopotamian astrology and astronomy, which were not distinct as pseudo-science is from science, and were together a major part of cuneiform intellectual culture. The ... More

Astrology: The Science of Signs in the Heavens  

Glen M. Cooper

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
In its original Babylonian and Egyptian contexts, astrology was the interpretation of celestial signs and omens sent by the gods as warnings to rulers and the elite. Roman fondness for ... More

Astronomy in Ancient Egypt  

Joachim Friedrich Quack

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
This chapter studies Egyptian astronomy based on the very few surviving texts. The Egyptian calendar was purely solar, unlike most ancient calendars. The oldest astronomical monuments from ... More

Byzantine Alchemy, or the Era of Systematization  

Cristina Viano

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The chapter shows how the texts of early Byzantine alchemy transformed the alchemical tradition. This period is characterized by a generation of “commentators” tied to the Neoplatonic ... More

Byzantine Geography  

Andreas Kuelzer

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The chapter maps out the various forms and modes of Greek geographical writing and thinking in the early Byzantine period. Geography in Byzantium means transmission of the ancient Greeks’ ... More

Byzantine Medical Encyclopedias and Education  

Svetla Slaveva-Griffin

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The contribution of the Byzantine medical encyclopedists (ca 370 ce–ca 650 ce) to the preservation of medical knowledge still awaits its full scholarly assessment. This chapter highlights ... More

Dietetics: Regimen for Life and Health  

Mark Grant

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The chapter discusses ancient Greek dietetic theory and practice; for Greek physicians and patients, diet was one of the primary means of medical intervention. Diet was treated along with ... More

Distilling Nature’s Secrets: The Sacred Art of Alchemy  

Kyle Fraser

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
This chapter re-examines the historiography of Greco-Egyptian alchemy. The author challenges the representation of alchemy as a superficial amalgam (or “syncretism”) of Greek philosophical ... More

Early Mathematics and Astronomy  

Leonid Zhmud

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The chapter surveys Greek mathematics and astronomy, as far as it can be known from works before circa 300 bce. Key sources are the now-fragmentary histories of astronomy and of geometry ... More

Egyptian Medicine  

Rosalie David

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
This chapter studies ancient Egyptian medicine, which for nearly two millennia before the Greek conquest had combined both rational and irrational procedures. For Egyptians, magic was a ... More

Epicurus and His Circle: Philosophy, Medicine, and the Sciences  

Teun Tieleman

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The chapter gives an account Epicurus’ natural philosophy and his attitude to the sciences. Epicurus’ mission was to liberate people from the fear of death and the gods, and science was ... More

Galen  

Susan Mattern

Print publication date:
Dec 2017
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Galen was part of the urban, Hellenic, leisured class and culture that produced the Second Sophistic. In the regimen he prescribes for a healthy way of life, and in his stories about his ... More

Galen and His System of Medicine  

Ian Johnston

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The chapter treats the life and work of the physician Galen; his own works are the primary source for his life. He established a comprehensive system of medical practice based on a ... More

Greco-Roman Surgical Instruments: The Tools of the Trade  

Lawrence J. Bliquez

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The chapter looks at Greek and Roman surgical instruments. The survival of Greco-Roman surgical instruments falls into two divisions: tools available in Hippocratic times (fifth to fourth ... More

Greek Mathematics and Astronomy in Late Antiquity  

Alain Bernard

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The chapter discusses the mathematics and astronomy of “Late Antiquity” (the early Byzantine period). The period was one of intensive innovation, transformation, and change, involving ... More

Hellenistic Astronomy  

Alan C. Bowen

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
This chapter focuses on four texts in Hellenistic astrologia, which covers both astrology and astronomy. Its guiding thesis is that understanding ancient astrologia should not be ... More

Hellenistic Geography from Ephorus Through Strabo  

Duane W. Roller

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Geography as a scholarly discipline originated in the period from the 4th century BCE through the 1st century CE. Ephorus in the 340s BCE was the first to write about it in detail, and the ... More

Hellenistic Mathematics  

Fabio Acerbi

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The article analyses the forms and texts of Hellenistic mathematics. Three stylistic codes were employed in these texts, each related to a specific mathematical content: the demonstrative, ... More

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