Steven J. Garfinkle
This chapter examines the history of the formation of city-states in the Fertile Crescent. It provides a working definition of city-state in both spatial and social terms, and describes the city-state, focusing on the historical periods of early Mesopotamia. The chapter also considers the ideology of the city-state, the administration of an integrated economy, the emergence of kingship and institutions of government, and the replacement of the city-state system with territorial kingdoms.
This chapter explores the history of the formation of the Iranian Empires, identifying the major phases in state formation, which include the Achaemenid Empire, Iran in Hellenistic times, the Parthian Empire, and the Sasanian Empire. It also describes the key features of the Achaemenid Empire, the Arsacid-Parthian Empire, and the Sasanian Empire, and explains the factors and conditions that influenced state formation.
This chapter examines the history of the formation of Jewish states, discussing the geography and phenomenology of the Jewish states, and the relation between ethnos and state. It highlights the incomplete consolidation of Judaism as the normative ideology of the Jews in the Achaemenid and Hellenistic periods, describes the Hasmonean state under Herod, and identifies the factors that contributed to state formation.