The town of Tornio, on the border of present-day Finland and Sweden, was founded in 1621, on the order of the King of Sweden, to replace the old medieval marketplace on the estuary of the Tornio river. It was the northernmost urban site in Europe at the time. The founding and early development of the town was part of the broader trade-political process in the emerging Kingdom of Sweden during the early modern age. The original town was a small, wooden trading-post-like place, settled mostly by peasants from the surrounding countryside. This chapter provides an overview of Tornio’s urban development in its first century of existence, and discusses the development of the built environment based on the results of archaeological studies conducted since the 1960s. Lastly, the chapter addresses the early urbanization process of the inhabitants by considering their relationships with artefacts during the early phases of the town.
The children in New York City’s nineteenth-century working-class immigrant families were explorers. It was they, more than their parents, who had the time and the nerve to go beyond their immediate neighbourhoods. Neither constrained by regular work nor school (at least until 1874 when school became mandatory), they were free to wander the streets—to work at odd jobs, to challenge the law with minor (and probably some major) illegal acts. Working-class children made their own world outside the tenements where there was no room to play inside. Their lives were relatively unsupervised and they thrived on the freedom. The challenge for urban archaeologists is to find material evidence of working-class children’s activities. This chapter explores the archaeological evidence for working-class children’s lives through a number of excavated sites and brings a new understanding to the life of children in New York city.