Philip C. Schmitz
The academic study of the Phoenicians and their civilization began relatively recently, but has quickly generated a large bibliography of important studies. One of the difficulties that learners face is that the historical study of Phoenician civilization must draw on a large number of sources from several different fields of research, not all of which are in regular communication with each other or are widely known to the general readership. This chapter provides an introduction to and a sample of the many sources available to specialists and nonspecialists seeking reliable knowledge about Phoenician civilization from the Iron Age to the Hellenistic period. Terminology is introduced, beginning with designations of the land known as Canaan. Greek testimonies to Phoenician history are next presented, especially the figure Sanchuniathon discussed by Porphyry and Josephus. Phoenician alphabetic texts—that is, epigraphic sources—are discussed for their limited potential as historical sources, with ample bibliographic citations to guide the researcher.