Paul L. Posner and Asif Shahan
As the programs and commitment of the government have become more complex and specialized, the roles played by a wide range of accountability institutions has become more prominent. The most important of these are the independent national audit offices which have emerged to review the finances and performance of far- flung government agents in meeting public objectives. In this chapter, we review the evolution of these audit institutions worldwide, examining what factors affect their independence and influence in shaping the agendas and performance of government agencies. Far from hegemonic influence, audit offices in fact exercise variable influence, depending on such factors as the professional capacity and autonomy of the audit institution and the receptivity of the broader political system to their recommendations.
Axel Dreher, Valentin F. Lang, and Sebastian Ziaja
This chapter reviews the aid effectiveness literature to assess whether foreign aid given to areas of limited statehood (ALS) can be expected to promote economic and social outcomes in the recipient country. It distinguishes between different types of aid, motives for granting it, recipient country policies and characteristics, and the modalities by which aid is delivered, as these factors have been argued to influence its effectiveness. This chapter then compares these properties between recipients most affected by limited statehood and those least affected. This allows us to assess the relative effectiveness of aid in countries with ALS. We conclude that on average aid given there is less likely to be effective than elsewhere. As countries with ALS, however, constitute a heterogeneous group, the specifics of individual countries and the types of aid given matter.
The 2016 reports of sexual abuse by United Nations peacekeepers in the Central African Republic and the 2015 Haiti cholera epidemic brought renewed attention to the debate on the accountability of the United Nations for wrongs committed or damages caused by peacekeepers against civilian populations in host countries. In domestic jurisdictions, victims of wrongs enforce accountability or seek redress for wrongs or injuries committed against them through the courts. Yet, the doctrine of immunity precludes any legal actions against the United Nations and its officials in domestic courts. They enjoy immunities and privileges under the laws of member states from every form of legal process except insofar as the United Nations has in any particular case expressly waived its immunity. Given the doctrine of immunity, the chapter addresses how accountability can be promoted through policies and measures that ensure that there is no impunity for wrongs committed against civilians and communities by United Nations officials.