This chapter reviews the history of prostitution law in Canada. It begins with a review of relevant literature on the history and policy of the sex trade in Canada, along with current laws and their enforcement. It then discusses two sources of data available for use in prostitution research in Canada: the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, a data set that tracks crime and arrest information, and the Erotic Review (TER), a data set drawn from an online review website for sex professionals. These data sets are employed in descriptive analysis of the state of prostitution markets in Canada. The chapter also considers the challenges brought against Canadian prostitution law and concludes by suggesting potential research directions.
Luigi Guiso and Paolo Pinotti
This chapter documents a sharp reversal in electoral participation between the North and the South of Italy after the 1912 enfranchisement which extended voting rights from a limited élite to (almost) all adult males. When voting was restricted to the élite, electoral turnout was higher in the South but falls significantly below that in the North after the enfranchisement. This gap has never been bridged over the following century and participation remains lower in the South despite the enrichment of democratic institutions and extension of voting rights to women during the post-war democratic republic. This pattern is consistent with a simple theoretical framework in which individuals' voting in political elections is affected by private benefits and civic duty. Only elites can grab private benefits from participation in politics, and civic culture differs across communities. Extension of voting rights to non-elites results in a significant transfer of power to their political organizations only among populations with a high sense of civic duties. Together with the gap in participation between North and South our findings suggest that democratization can benefit non-elites only when the latter have already a high sense of civic capital and is unlikely to induce norms of civic behavior.
Sascha O. Becker and Ludger Woessmann
Max Weber's (1904) thesis that the Protestant Reformation was instrumental in facilitating industrial capitalism in Western Europe is generally viewed as the “most famous link between culture and economic development.” Weber suggested that Protestants had a specific work ethic that made them work harder and save more. In recent work, an alternative explanation has been proposed that receives strong empirical support: Protestants had higher human capital, which made them more productive and therefore increased their economic prosperity. This article explores the recent advancements in the economics of religion that assign a leading role to human capital in understanding the economic effects of the Reformation. It first provides a brief sketch of the underlying theory and then presents extensive evidence on the effects of the Reformation on human capital using data from nineteenth-century Prussia. The article also discusses consequences beyond education, covering effects on economic development as well as on the fertility decline. Evidence from outside Prussia, both across and within countries, is also presented.
Giuseppe Bertola and Paolo Sestito
The chapter reviews the evolution of educational institutions and outcomes over the 150 years since Italy's unification and discusses their interaction with national and regional growth patterns. Initial educational conditions across regions contributed to differentiate the early industrial take off in the late nineteenth century. Conversely, formal education does not appear to have played a major role in the post-war economic boom. The slowdown of Italy's economy since the 1990s may in part reflect interactions between the country's traditionally low human capital intensity and its new comparative advantage patterns. It may also be due in part to the deterioration of Italy's educational system's organization since the 1970s.
Given the rich scientific tradition of the Muslim world, current levels of scientific production in predominantly Muslim countries are surprisingly low. A recent survey of the state of scientific production in Muslim countries found that forty-six predominantly Muslim countries produced 1.17 percent of the world's science literature between 1997 and 2007. The historical record provides evidence that religious diversity and religious tolerance helped constrain Islam's conservative elements for hundreds of years. This article examines the extent to which the behavior of Muslim religious authorities helps explain the evolution of Muslim scientific development in the premodern era. It begins by providing a brief overview of scientific production throughout Islamic history and then examines the role of religion in both the flourishing and stagnation of Muslim science. The conclusion provides suggestions for future research and examines the extent to which the historical evolution of Islam provides lessons for encouraging scientific progress today.
Matteo Gomellini and Cormac Ó Gráda
This chapter is an analytic account of Italian emigration and immigration between 1861 and the present. After describing the economic and demographic characteristics of emigrants, it analyzes the causes and effects of their migrations. It explores the consequences of the two main waves of Italian emigration (before 1914 and after 1945) for those left behind, and reckons that in the long run, emigration accounted for 4-5% of the growth in GDP per capita, with the South benefiting considerably more than the North. The chapter also describes the impact of recent immigration on those in residence in Italy, with a particular focus on the links with the economic activity, the labor market, the balance of payments, crime and public opinion, on the other.
Religion and the Spread of Human Capital and Political Institutions: Christian Missions as a Quasi-Natural Experiment
Robert D. Woodberry
Although often ignored, religion has profoundly shaped political and economic conditions around the world. This claim is suggested by three historical divergences: a divergence between Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox, and Muslim regions of Europe (these differences emerged after the Reformation and began to dissipate only after World War II); a divergence between Protestant and Catholic settler colonies in Oceania and the Americas; and a divergence between the impacts of Protestant and Catholic missionaries on societies throughout the global South prior to Vatican II (which ended in 1965). This article discusses religion and the spread of human capital and political institutions, focusing on Christian missions as a quasi-natural experiment. It argues that both in Europe and in the global South, Protestants shaped human capital development (mass education and mass printing) and institutional development (civil society, colonial rule of law, and market economics)—especially prior to the 1960s. Together, these shaped elites' incentives and thus long-term prospects for economic development and political democracy.
Maristella Botticini and Zvi Eckstein
Circa 1000, the main occupations of the large Jewish community in Muslim Spain and of the small Jewish communities in southern Italy, France, and Germany were local trade and long-distance commerce, as well as handicrafts. A common view states that the usury ban on Christians segregated European Jews into money lending. A similar view contends that the Jews were forced to become money lenders because they were not permitted to own land, and therefore, they were banned from farming. This article offers an alternative argument which is consistent with the main features that mark the history of the Jews: the Jews in medieval Europe voluntarily selected themselves into money lending because they had the key assets for being successful players in credit markets. After providing an overview of Jewish history during 70–1492, it discusses religious norms and human capital in Jewish European history, Jews in the Talmud era, the massive transition of the Jews from farming to crafts and trade, the golden age of the Jewish diaspora (ca. 800–ca. 1250), and the legacy of Judaism.
Alexandre Frondizi and Simon Porcher
This chapter provides an in-depth historical analysis of prostitution markets in Paris during the 19th century. More specifically, it explores the economic rationalities of the different actors in the informal public prostitution network and how their behavior affects the financial considerations of the other actors in the urban economy. Before discussing the economics of popular prostitutions in fin-de-siècle Paris, the chapter takes a look at streetwalkers and their role in the local economy. It then considers the supply and demand for street prostitutes in Paris, along with the negative externalities of public prostitution in the city. In particular, it examines the impact of street prostitution on regulated brothels, shopkeepers, and annuitants. It also takes into account the positive externalities of street prostitution in relation to wine merchants and slumlords and concludes with an assessment of the red-light district of fin-de-siècle Paris.
Andrea Brandolini and Giovanni Vecchi
The chapter describes the evolution of the Italians' well-being during the 150 years since the country's unification. The progress in material standard of living has been substantial, with GDP per capita growing thirteen times between 1861 and 2011 and hours of work (and hence effort) falling considerably, but roughly in line with that experienced by most other European countries. By relying on a novel database on household budgets, it is shown that economic growth has been accompanied by a long-run reduction of inequality that however appears to have been reversed in the last two decades. Progress has not been limited to the economic domain: educational attainment has improved considerably, although less than in other countries, and life expectancy has grown at a spectacular pace, allowing Italians to lead current international rankings.