Christoph R. Weiss
This article briefly reviews the different theoretical approaches that are put forward to relate a preference for variety to an individual's purchasing and consumption behavior. This article reviews the existing empirical evidence on the demand for variety by discussing various ways to measure variety in food consumption. It focuses on preferences in explaining differences in individual behavior and introduces an additional approach to understanding consumers' demand for variety, which is based on the theory of household production. It summarizes a few stylized facts emanating from this literature on the impact of various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of households and consumers on their demand for food variety. It finally addresses some issues that have been neglected in the economic analysis of the demand for food variety.
Ted C. Schroeder and Glynn T. Tonsor
Consumer demand for meat is constantly changing and agricultural economists have been prolifically researching this change. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of demand for meat quality attributes and it discusses implications for industry stakeholders and policymakers. Discussion focuses especially on demand for red meat quality attributes by consumers in the United States and Europe. It mentions that properly specified meat demand models require variables capturing changing consumer lifestyles and preferences for specific meat quality attributes if models are to be of value in understanding consumer behavior. It also shows the overall patterns in meat demand. It assesses how consumer demand for meat quality attributes is influencing consumer meat purchasing decisions. Numerous economic experiments and surveys reveal that consumers are willing to pay more for products they perceive possess intrinsic quality attributes they want.
If we are to emerge from the process of growing up with an adult conception of justice, it will be a conception of our place and of our due, alongside a conception of what other people are due, within a community that has a logic of its own. That logic will be described by economics (among other social sciences) and by ecology. Realistic possibilities are implications of those logics. Adult views about ethics and about justice will be disciplined by those logics.
This article focuses on food away from home in the United States, changes in this market over time, and how these changes raise questions for policymakers and others concerned about both agriculture and diet quality. Changes in what people eat can also affect nutrient intake and overall health. Model of household production provides a theoretical framework within which researchers can analyze the demand for food away from home. This article also states that empirical research also demonstrates the importance of a household's demographic characteristics. It also suggests how the size of the market for food away from home could change over time. Demographic trends in the population contributing to changes in demand are also discussed. The growing popularity of food away from home suggests that this market will be ever more important to the welfare of both consumers and agriculture.
Sven - Olov Daunfeldt, Jonas Nordström, and Linda Thunström
This article summarizes the empirical literature on habit formation in food consumption in order to analyze the hypothesis that food consumption is habit forming. It reviews the main econometric models used to study habits in food consumption and describes the most commonly used demand models and departs from the static version of the models. It describes how these models can be extended to dynamic versions incorporating habit formation. The focus is on the functional form of the models rather than estimation. The empirical studies reviewed in this article generally find habit formation in food consumption, implying that dynamics is an important factor in food demand analysis. Finally, it summarizes the results and discusses fruitful areas for future research.
Wallace E. Huffman
This article presents a brief review of empirical studies of food demand, especially linkages to household production theory and models. It discusses several types of microeconomic models of household decision-making and highlights their implications for empirical food demand studies. Relative to neoclassical demand functions, the models of productive household behavior that are developed in this article include the opportunity cost of time of adults, full-income budget constraint, and technical efficiency or technical change in household production as determinants of the demand for food and other inputs. The article also gives an empirical application of insights gained from household production theory for a household input demand system fitted to unique data on the US household sector over the post-Second World War period. Finally, it addresses how future food demand studies might build a stronger bridge to the models of household behavior including a production function and resource of human time of adult household members.
Joachim Von Braun
This article focuses on the relationship between consumers and food prices and addresses two main issues: increases in food price levels and volatility caused by changes in consumption volumes and structure, and changes in consumption caused by increases in food price levels and volatility. It gives a brief discussion of some relevant theoretical and conceptual issues. Changes in food consumption are addressed within a broad discussion of the patterns and determinants of high and volatile food prices. It examines consumer responses and impacts in the context of high and volatile food prices with a focus on poor consumers in developing countries. This article concludes with a brief discussion of existing and desired policy responses to stabilize consumption through price policy, stocks, and trade, as well as mitigation of negative effects on the most vulnerable through subsidies and social protection.