Susyan Jou, Bill Hebenton, and Lennon Chang
Culture, whether invoked as a dependent or independent variable, has become increasingly significant with respect to the study of white-collar criminality. Indeed, it can be argued that it has moved from the periphery to the center of criminological concerns and research. This chapter considers the conceptual underpinnings of geographic cultural variation on values and organization, together with its uses and implications within particular forms of cross-national research on white-collar crime, particularly corruption (including bribery and intellectual property fraud). To illustrate the explicatory value of the cultural, the chapter examines the Chinese practice of guanxi. Culture is just one partial aspect of any adequate explanation for white-collar crime, part of the mix with other aspects of action that are more commonly understood as political or economic.
Stephen F. Pires and William D. Moreto
The illegal wildlife trade is a growing problem driven by a number of factors (e.g. subsistence, alternative medicine, accessories, the pet trade). High demand for illicit wildlife products is threatening the existence of many of the most-endangered species. By unsustainably removing coveted species from the wild, communities that depend on such species for subsistence or eco-tourism will be adversely impacted by depleting populations. Laws and regulations have been implemented over the years, most notably CITES, to regulate the commercial trade in wildlife and prohibit trade in other species that are at-risk of overexploitation albeit with mixed success. Criminologists have recently entered the fold and provided insight to the wildlife trade through various perspectives. Researchers are beginning to better understand why and how the trade operates and what solutions might be implemented to reduce it. The article ends with implications for future research.