Samuel C. McQuade III
This article begins by discussing cybercrime as an evolving technology-based crime construct. Cybercrime includes existing and emerging forms of criminality carried out with electronic IT devices and information systems. This is followed by examples and explanations of emerging IT-enabled abuse and crime and discussion of major types of cybercrime and categories of cyber offenders. This article reviews cyber offending and victimization on the basis of a limited number of available studies. It then discusses responses to cybercrime by numerous investigative, regulatory, and technical assistance entities. There is broad consensus that cybercrime threatens many institutional sectors and critical information infrastructure. Finally, the article concludes with suggestions for research and discussions of possibilities for mounting and sustaining coordinated research, evaluation, and prevention initiatives.
This article begins by examining the evidence on the extent and costs of financial crimes. It includes a broad variety of deceptions against a spectrum of poor and wealthy individuals and businesses. It present an analysis of organization of financial crimes at a general level and then discusses subtypes of fraud, based on their techniques and victim sectors. It provides an understanding of the organization of fraud in terms of how would-be offenders confront problems of gaining finance, gaining access to crime opportunities, and retaining their freedom and crime proceeds. There is a discussion of alternative model of thinking about financial crimes and involves clustering them as the skill sets, contacts, start-up capital, and running costs that they require. It concludes with an examination of the major regulatory and criminal justice policy options.
Policy contests over gambling have turned to issues of problem gamblers, economic development, and ancillary crime. This article discusses the scope and scale of legal gambling in the United States and examines various issues during this history, contextualizing U.S. treatment with continued toleration of gambling and its flourish in illegal forms. It details current forms of legal gambling and its symbolism. The article provides a critiques of legal gambling together with analyses of their salience and success in current discussions and legalization efforts. It presents a number of unresolved issues in the legalization of gambling, including the capacity of communications technology to change the forms of gambling. Due to the role of the state in allowing and promoting gambling, the progress of gambling in all these dimensions has been uncoupled from other victimless crimes.
Edward R. Kleemans
Human smuggling and human trafficking are phenomena that require different policy responses. This article summarizes data, figures, and patterns concerning human smuggling and human trafficking. In practice, the two different phenomena may be intertwined. Human smuggling basically involves mutual consent between illegal immigrants, their families, and smugglers. In combating human trafficking, involuntary prostitution, helping victims, and prosecuting offenders are key issues. A much discussed element in forced prostitution is the involvement of criminal groups and organized crime. This article is devoted to policy measures and interventions and highlights research priorities for the coming decade. An important area for research is the method by which different prostitution and enforcement policies affect the opportunities and restrictions of various parties: clients, owners, operators, pimps, and prostitutes.
Heith Copes and Lynne Vieraitis
This article provides an overview about identity theft. It elaborates the uncertainty and difficulties in defining the crime. It describes patterns and incidences of identity theft and mentions the primary sources of data that illuminates the extent and costs of this crime. It discusses those who are victimized by the crime and those who engage in it. This article offers two theoretical explanations for the reasons for committing identity theft by offenders. It details the common techniques used to locate information and convert it into cash or goods. Policy ideas, including existing legislation directed towards identity theft prevention, and the policy implications of current knowledge about identity theft are also discussed. Finally, the article outlines the need for future research to understand the crime of identity theft and thus increase the likelihood that policy makers and law enforcement are effective in reducing this crime.
Lynne Vieraitis and Amny Shuraydi
Often cited as one of the fastest-growing crimes in the United States and abroad, identity theft continues to be of great concern to the public. It is a crime that is difficult to control and has become increasingly complex as offenders adapt to target hardening by consumers and businesses and identify new sources of data containing personally identifying information. The purpose of this essay is to provide readers with an overview of identity theft, including what is currently known about the trends and patterns of identity theft, information on offenders and victims, as well as the methods used by identity thieves to steal and convert personally identifying information for financial gain.
Michael Levi and Peter Reuter
Money laundering is a very modern crime created by the late twentieth-century state to enlist the financial sector in its search of the proceeds of crime and prevention of career criminality, particularly transnational crime. This article presents examples that illustrate the variety of methods available and kind of persons involved, along with some classifications. It discusses the relationship of money laundering to corruption control and analyzes the effects of anti-money laundering controls. It provides a brief assessment of the consequences of the control system. A broad and intrusive set of controls has been erected to prevent money laundering. The system generates substantial crime or corruption control benefits which must be high on the agenda of the relevant policy-making community.
Neal Shover and Jennifer Scroggins
This article reviews and assesses theory and research on organizational crime. It notes the behavioral distinctiveness of acts considered under this procedure. Sources of data and methods used in studies of organizational crime are also discussed. This article documents variation in the distribution of organizational crime and the application of rational choice theory for its explanation. It provides a description about organizational criminal careers and reports about state and private responses to organizational crime. The next section examines the effects of economic globalization on competition, oversight, and organizational crime. It presents a research agenda for further attention and investigation. The record of research on organizational crime shows the need for increased attention on international organizational crime, the enhanced understanding of the contexts and meanings of organizational crime, comparative studies of regulatory oversight styles, and better statistical information.
This article examines current U.S. organized crime control policy and its attendant practices in light of some recent criticisms. It requires the establishment the nature and character of criminal organizations and organized crime that might require special means for combating them and costs associated with their use. It also discusses the efficacy of the various tools in U.S. policy for combating organized crime. It explores cross-national comparative research and evaluation possibilities and also deals with risks and moral hazards inherent in particular organized crime control strategies and policies justifiable when weighed against their demonstrated effectiveness. This article ends up with the need of much greater collaboration between researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to understand better organized crime and to improve the effectiveness of methods to combat it. Much more attention must be devoted to prevention-oriented approaches to organized crime.
This article briefly maps the domain of tax evasion and draws on the best data available from the United States to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. It reviews the scientific literature on the primary drivers of tax evasion. The nature and extent of tax evasion vary across contexts and time, depending on opportunity to evade tax and the enforcement processes in place. It illustrates tax evasion as a white-collar crime, the substance of which is sometimes poorly specified and changes with economic and social conditions. There is a brief review on the reasons for individuals evading tax and includes discussion about benefits, coercion, obligation, and justice. It considers some of the strategies that governments are using to try to rebuild the effectiveness and integrity of their tax systems to ensure future sustainability.
A. J. G. Tijhuis
Cultural artifacts encompass both antiquities and works of art. Global crime related to cultural artifacts can be divided into several types. This article discusses these types and look at the nexus with other types of crime. It focuses on art crimes that involve cross-border activities. The transnational trade in stolen art and antiquities can be placed in the context of several causal mechanisms and influences. Law enforcement efforts and other policy approaches are also described. Finally, it discusses the policy implications with focus on ratification of multilateral treaties. Police agencies specializing in art theft are few in number and typically small. On the basis of the current body of knowledge about the trade in stolen art and antiquities several tentative recommendations can be offered for both public policies and research in this field.