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Case Study: Lost and Found Christianity, Conversion, and Gang Disaffiliation in Guatemala  

Kevin O’Neill

Important research focuses on why thousands of young men and women join youth gangs, but much can be learned from looking at a single life in order to understand ways individuals manage to ... More

Case Study: Black Cannabis Dealers in a White Welfare State Race, Politics, and Street Capital in Norway  

Sveinung Sandberg

An ethnographic study of a group of young black men dealing cannabis at a drug scene called The River in Oslo demonstrates that accumulation and use of street capital can be seen as ... More

Juvenile Justice Cross-Nationally Considered  

Michael Tonry and Colleen Chambers

In juvenile systems, countries vary considerably in how they define the jurisdiction of adult and juvenile courts and where they draw the lines between them. The starkest difference lies in ... More

Juvenile Justice in Italy  

Uberto Gatti and Alfredo Verde

This article provides an overview of juvenile justice in Italy. It begins by charting the birth and evolution of the Italian juvenile justice system, from the establishment of juvenile ... More

Juvenile Justice in Poland  

Krzysztof Krajewski

The juvenile justice system in Poland is an example of a paternalistic and welfare approach to juvenile justice. Special, nonpenal responsibility for juveniles applies for those between 13 ... More

Latin American Youth Gangs  

Robert Brenneman and Adriana García

In recent decades, youth street gangs have captured the attention of the media both inside and outside the region. Particularly in the northern Central American countries of Guatemala, ... More

Youth and Crime in Sweden  

David Shannon, Olof Bäckman, Felipe Estrada, and Anders Nilsson

This chapter describes trends in crime among Swedish youth on the basis of both official statistics and alternative indicators, noting a decline over time both in the general level of youth ... More

Youth Justice in Australia  

Chris Cunneen

This essay provides an overview and analysis of juvenile justice in Australia. It describes the historical background to the establishment of a separate juvenile justice system and the ... More

Youth Justice in China  

Susyan Jou, Lennon Chang, and Bill Hebenton

China’s well-documented and rapid socioeconomic changes, including largely unmanaged rural to urban migration, form an important pressure on development of an adequate juvenile justice ... More

Youth Justice in England and Wales  

Loraine Gelsthorpe and Caroline Lanskey

This chapter examines the youth justice system in England and Wales since its inception at the beginning of the twentieth century. It describes its institutional structures, and processes, ... More

Youth Justice in Germany  

Frieder Dünkel

Youth justice in Germany covers juveniles and young adult offenders from 14 to 20 years of age. The legal approach since the enactment of a first Juvenile Justice Act (JJA) in 1923 has ... More

Youth Justice in Hungary During the 20th and 21st Centuries  

Miklós Lévay

Juvenile justice systems are not static constructions but are highly dependent on the cultural, historical, and political environment. Therefore, analyses cannot provide a complete picture ... More

Youth Justice in Israel  

Mimi Ajzenstadt

Policies in Israel retain the traditional view that juvenile delinquents should be treated and rehabilitated. These policies are driven by changing rationalities, norms, and values, which ... More

Youth Justice in Japan  

Tom Ellis and Akira Kyo

This chapter provides the first comprehensive overview of Japanese youth justice, locating it within wider conceptual considerations of youth justice, such as welfare versus justice and ... More