Samuel C. McQuade III
This article begins by discussing cybercrime as an evolving technology-based crime construct. Cybercrime includes existing and emerging forms of criminality carried out with electronic IT devices and information systems. This is followed by examples and explanations of emerging IT-enabled abuse and crime and discussion of major types of cybercrime and categories of cyber offenders. This article reviews cyber offending and victimization on the basis of a limited number of available studies. It then discusses responses to cybercrime by numerous investigative, regulatory, and technical assistance entities. There is broad consensus that cybercrime threatens many institutional sectors and critical information infrastructure. Finally, the article concludes with suggestions for research and discussions of possibilities for mounting and sustaining coordinated research, evaluation, and prevention initiatives.
This article begins by examining the evidence on the extent and costs of financial crimes. It includes a broad variety of deceptions against a spectrum of poor and wealthy individuals and businesses. It present an analysis of organization of financial crimes at a general level and then discusses subtypes of fraud, based on their techniques and victim sectors. It provides an understanding of the organization of fraud in terms of how would-be offenders confront problems of gaining finance, gaining access to crime opportunities, and retaining their freedom and crime proceeds. There is a discussion of alternative model of thinking about financial crimes and involves clustering them as the skill sets, contacts, start-up capital, and running costs that they require. It concludes with an examination of the major regulatory and criminal justice policy options.
Heith Copes and Lynne Vieraitis
This article provides an overview about identity theft. It elaborates the uncertainty and difficulties in defining the crime. It describes patterns and incidences of identity theft and mentions the primary sources of data that illuminates the extent and costs of this crime. It discusses those who are victimized by the crime and those who engage in it. This article offers two theoretical explanations for the reasons for committing identity theft by offenders. It details the common techniques used to locate information and convert it into cash or goods. Policy ideas, including existing legislation directed towards identity theft prevention, and the policy implications of current knowledge about identity theft are also discussed. Finally, the article outlines the need for future research to understand the crime of identity theft and thus increase the likelihood that policy makers and law enforcement are effective in reducing this crime.
Lynne Vieraitis and Amny Shuraydi
Often cited as one of the fastest-growing crimes in the United States and abroad, identity theft continues to be of great concern to the public. It is a crime that is difficult to control and has become increasingly complex as offenders adapt to target hardening by consumers and businesses and identify new sources of data containing personally identifying information. The purpose of this essay is to provide readers with an overview of identity theft, including what is currently known about the trends and patterns of identity theft, information on offenders and victims, as well as the methods used by identity thieves to steal and convert personally identifying information for financial gain.
Michael Levi and Peter Reuter
Money laundering is a very modern crime created by the late twentieth-century state to enlist the financial sector in its search of the proceeds of crime and prevention of career criminality, particularly transnational crime. This article presents examples that illustrate the variety of methods available and kind of persons involved, along with some classifications. It discusses the relationship of money laundering to corruption control and analyzes the effects of anti-money laundering controls. It provides a brief assessment of the consequences of the control system. A broad and intrusive set of controls has been erected to prevent money laundering. The system generates substantial crime or corruption control benefits which must be high on the agenda of the relevant policy-making community.
Neal Shover and Jennifer Scroggins
This article reviews and assesses theory and research on organizational crime. It notes the behavioral distinctiveness of acts considered under this procedure. Sources of data and methods used in studies of organizational crime are also discussed. This article documents variation in the distribution of organizational crime and the application of rational choice theory for its explanation. It provides a description about organizational criminal careers and reports about state and private responses to organizational crime. The next section examines the effects of economic globalization on competition, oversight, and organizational crime. It presents a research agenda for further attention and investigation. The record of research on organizational crime shows the need for increased attention on international organizational crime, the enhanced understanding of the contexts and meanings of organizational crime, comparative studies of regulatory oversight styles, and better statistical information.