Bruce E. Kaufman
The human resource function in the business enterprise has its origins in the rise of modern industry in the late nineteenth century. This article provides a survey of its historical development both as a functional area of management practice and as an area of research and teaching in universities. Although, for reasons to be described, the bulk of attention is on the United States, The article endeavors to put the subject in an international context. Also provided is an account of the field's progress, shortcomings, and controversies.
Peter Cappelli and J.R. Keller
In this chapter, we review the historical context of talent management, and identify the key issues and debates likely to shape the field going forward. We begin by offering a definition of talent management that reflects how both academics and practitioners have come to view the field. We then provide an overview of the conceptual history of talent management and a historical tour of its practice, focusing primarily on developments in United States, where much more has been written on the subject, from the early days of industrial production to today. We conclude by offering our thoughts on the areas of inquiry we believe hold the most promise for those interested in advancing the science and practice of talent management.
This article defines the management of labor to cover three broad interconnected areas: work relations, employment relations, and industrial relations. Throughout the article, the emphasis is on major patterns in these three areas as they have developed, especially in large private-sector firms, over a long period of time from the early nineteenth century onwards. The article provides a broad overview of the contexts within which labor has been managed, including the market, technological, political, and business contexts. It also presents broad “stages” in the history of labor management, taking examples from leading sectors of the economy. However, throughout the article, the aim is to stress continuities over time between stages, the coexistence of systems at any one point in time, and how older sectors also adapt over time.
This article surveys the literature on skill formation and training, presenting arguments about the significance of skills and the historical sources of variation in training regimes. It considers briefly a range of arguments by economists and political scientists on the implications of different, nationally specific models of skill formation. The article presents an overview of the various typologies that have been devised to characterize cross-national differences in training systems, and links these to recent claims about how vocational education and training systems fit into broader national political-economic models. It turns to the question of the origins of cross-national differences in training and skill-formation systems. Most of the historical literature is organized around the analysis of single country cases, and only a few works are explicitly comparative.
Like all industries, the creative industries possess a highest stratum of workers, those who reap the greatest rewards. The creative industries, however, produce a peculiar type of individual success that is not simply rewarded financially. The financial rewards of the industry are also part and parcel of the ability for the artist to become part spectacle; a person whose contribution transcends their talent and also becomes a part of the larger entertainment complex. These individuals are, in common parlance, ‘stars’. Undoubtedly, stars and stardom have existed since the beginning of civilization. Yet our increased interest in celebrities in the 21st century is a function of two attributes of contemporary society: our desire to share collective experiences and information in an increasingly globalized and anonymous world and the information technology communication revolution that enables us to do so. In short, stars have become the ‘global water cooler’. This article considers the emergence of stars in their many forms, the role of social media and new entertainment in creating them, the commodification of the stardom phenomenon and the consumption and production processes by which stardom arises, and ultimately dissipates. Finally, this article discusses what these dynamics mean for the future of stardom in contemporary society.