David A. Schroeder and William G. Graziano
This chapter provides a broad introduction and overview of the field of prosocial behavior, that is, acts that serve to benefit another person. It examines the following questions: What are the different types of prosocial behavior? Why do people act in prosocial ways? Who is most likely to help another? When are prosocial actions displayed? A multilevel approach to the answers of these questions is taken, considering the many and diverse factors operating at the microlevels, mesolevels, and macrolevels of analysis. The contributions of four major research areas to the understanding of prosocial behavior are explored: evolutionary psychology, developmental psychology, personality and individual differences, and social psychology.
Sanna Thompson, Kristin Ferguson, Kimberly Bender, Stephanie Begun, and Yeonwoo Kim
Navigating the transition from adolescence to adulthood is challenging for homeless emerging adults due to the absence of basic resources, sexual and physical victimization, psychological challenges, and unstable living conditions. To address the developmental issues associated with homelessness, this chapter utilizes a social estrangement framework to describe homeless emerging adults’ institutional/societal disafﬁliation, human capital, identiﬁcation with the homeless lifestyle, and psychological dysfunction. These terms are used to identify the developmental milestones associated with becoming adults in unconventional circumstances and during the nontraditional developmental processes experienced by homeless emerging adults. Intervention approaches are discussed in terms of services and barriers to care for homeless emerging adults. Policies are discussed that highlight the need for additional attention to service needs, mental health challenges, and criminal justice involvement of this population of emerging adults.
Jennifer S. Cheavens and Madison M. Guter
The strong association between hope and optimal psychological functioning has been empirically demonstrated repeatedly over the past two decades. In an effort to capitalize on these associations, researchers have developed and tested hope interventions aimed to increase hopeful thinking and optimal psychological functioning. Results are promising, suggesting that hope is malleable and that hope therapy reduces symptoms of distress and increases in well-being. Further, hope has been examined as a predictor of treatment success and data suggest that those with higher hope may do better in various treatments than their low-hope counterparts and that changes in hope across the course of therapy are associated with simultaneous improvements in psychological functioning. In future research, it will be important to identify specific therapeutic interventions that predict increases in hope and to determine whether or not hopeful thought is a mechanism of change in psychotherapy interventions.
Steven W. Duck and Daniel Usera
This chapter discusses how language is used to constitute relationships, particularly through the things we say and the things we show by saying them. Additionally, the chapter surveys the research in communication studies on six practices of everyday talk that arise in various kinds of relationships: self-disclosure, metaphors, narrative, taken-for-granted (TFGs), personal idioms, and intimate play. Four future directions of research are then suggested.
Relatively little research has examined the grandparent–adult grandchild relationship, although these relationships might play a more significant role than in the past, possibly impacting grandchildren’s development and the adjustment of both parties. This chapter reviews different theoretical perspectives related to this bond and presents the special flavor of this bond during emerging adulthood resulting from the different developmental trajectories of grandparents and grandchildren that mutually influence one another. Empirical findings demonstrating large variation both within and between families regarding frequency of contact and quality of the relations are presented, as well as various contextual and demographic variables that might mediate and moderate these variations. Finally, the importance of studying this bond, future research directions, and possible implications are discussed.
Suicidal behavior and interpersonal violence coexist in individuals to an extent that considerably exceeds chance covariation. Grasping the nature of this overlap enriches our understanding of suicidal behavior and that of interpersonal violence. The most extreme form of this overlap consists of homicide-suicide and the related concepts of mass murder, suicide bombing, and victim-precipitated homicide. The present chapter describes these phenomena and offers an overview of milder forms of coexisting suicidal behavior and interpersonal violence, organized by topical area: prospective studies, externalizing behaviors, neuropsychological factors, substance use disorders, trauma, protective factors, and exposure to violence. An overview of theoretical models follows. Implications of this body of knowledge for our understanding of suicidal behavior and suggestions for future inquiries conclude the chapter.
Wendi S. Williams, Amy Ginsberg, and Brittney Mandryk
Racism, sexism, homophobia, and low socioeconomic status (SES) have the potential to affect physical and mental health outcomes and treatment differentially. This chapter examines each of these sociocultural factors, guided by the assumption that an intersectionality analysis is valuable to conceptualizing the consequences of these categories of identity and diversity. The minority stress framework is used to consider the negative effect of carrying a marginalized identity. A review of the literature is presented, highlighting studies that incorporate the multiple and overlapping effects of racism, sexism, homophobia, and low SES to shape mental and physical health outcomes and treatment of individuals. Implications for mental and physical health research and practice are discussed.
John E. Lochman, Nicole Powell, Caroline Boxmeyer, Meghan L. Sallee, Casey Dillon, and Cameron Powe
Conduct problems and depression are two commonly occurring mental health problems affecting youth. For both conduct problems and depression, risk factors in the family, peer, and school contexts can contribute to the development and maintenance of these disorders in young people. Addressing contextual risk factors can lead to improvements in conduct problems and symptoms of depression. This chapter provides an overview of contextual risk factors for conduct problems and depression, and it reviews several effective interventions for treating each disorder. Outcome results are summarized for these interventions, as well as some of the major activities and objectives. The role of family, peer, and school contexts in the treatment of conduct problems and depression is highlighted.
Treatment Modalities: Comparing Treatment Outcomes and Therapeutic Processes in Individual, Family, and Group Counseling and Psychotherapy
D. Martin Kivlighan III and Dennis M. Kivlighan Jr.
In the first part of this chapter the focus is on research comparing the effectiveness (i.e., psychotherapy outcomes) of various treatment modalities: individual, group, couple, and family therapies. In the second section the discussion shifts to focus on research that examines therapy process similarities and differences across the various treatment modalities. The chapter includes a review of the research literature comparing individual, group, couple, and family treatments. Although there are numerous studies comparing treatment approaches (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy vs. psychodynamic therapy), far fewer studies have compared treatment modalities. For treatment outcome differences, a number of meta-analyses examining similarities and differences across treatment modalities are reviewed, summarized, and critiqued. Exploring differences in therapeutic processes involved reviewing, summarizing, and critiquing studies that examined similarities and differences in the character of the therapeutic alliance, helpful events, and therapist behaviors and techniques. The chapter concludes with recommendations for future research. Two major approaches to new research are recommended: focus on treatment goals and systemic processes and an increased focus on the therapeutic processes that cut across and differentiate the treatment modalities