José M. Prieto, Pedro Chacón, and Carolina Marín
Pragmatism is the prevailing philosophical framework in work and organizational (W/O) psychology and so is an a posteriori perspective, a justification dependent on consequences of psychological actions and values that highlight transactions. Deontological codes are mere descriptions of inappropriate practices, and deontological committees are not final decision makers on ethics in the profession. Conflicts or complaints are examined privately first, and disagreements have recourse to law. Human rights in the workplace have been outcomes of political and legal actions, never based on ethical allegations (too conservative or religious, often). W/O psychology values, issues, and dilemmas were not taken into consideration in the elaboration of deontological codes for decades. Complaints in this area are rare, and controversial issues such as discrimination, plagiarism, and sexual behaviour are understood differently in W/O psychology. Human resources and global economy policies are interconnected and international (ISO) or national standards and norms abound in the field.
This chapter provides a selective review of past research on job loss, unemployment, and job search up to the beginning of the 1990s. The Great Depression studies in the 1930s at Marienthal by Jahoda and colleagues and by Bakke at Greenwich and New Haven are described, along with other research at the time. These early studies sowed the seeds for subsequent research programs in England, Europe, and Australia; the theories that emerged from this early and later research are described. They include stage theory, deprivation theory, agency theory, and vitamin theory. Other more general approaches—such as stress and coping models and expectancy-value theory—are also described as relevant to the unemployment experience. The historical review provides lessons about the importance of using a variety of methodologies that include descriptive field research, survey and questionnaire studies, longitudinal research, and research across cultures. It also suggests that progress will involve the application of midrange theories about work, paid employment, and unemployment targeted to particular issues such as psychological well-being, health-related problems, social and family effects, and job-search behavior.
Laura L. Koppes Bryan and Andrew J. Vinchur
This chapter is a historical overview of the evolution of industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology both in the United States and abroad, from the late nineteenth century to its current incarnation as a complex, wide-ranging scientific and applied discipline. Contextual background is integrated with the development of science and practice from a chronological perspective, partitioning this history into seven somewhat arbitrary time periods. Following a discussion of pre-1900 precursors, we discuss the genesis of the field from 1900 to 1914, when dynamic cultural, economic, and other external forces influenced early efforts in areas such as advertising, fatigue, and selection. Industrial psychology became established from 1915 through 1919, due in large part to the work of the Division of Applied Psychology at the Carnegie Institute of Technology and to psychologists’ efforts in World War I. The period of 1920 to 1939 included the influential Hawthorne Studies and the maturation of industrial psychology, while 1940 to 1959 saw considerable expansion during World War II and its aftermath. This expansion continued during the period of 1960 to 1979, with “industrial” psychology now “industrial-organizational” psychology. We close with an overview of developments from 1980 to the present day.
Andrew J. Vinchur and Laura L. Koppes Bryan
This chapter surveys the history of psychology applied to personnel selection and assessment, decade by decade, from approximately 1900 until the present. We begin with contextual factors that led to an applied psychology, along with measurement and statistical innovations that made scientific personnel selection feasible. Among the topics covered are the initial selection forays by psychologists in the early 1900s, the influence of the Carnegie Institute of Technology program, the impact of events such as World War I and II and the Civil Rights Movement on selection research and practice, and the evolution of validation and utility procedures. Finally, we reflect on the more than 100 years of research and practice by psychologists involved in personnel selection and assessment.
Sara L. Rynes-Weller, Cody J. Reeves, and Todd C. Darnold
This chapter reviews the history of peer-reviewed research on employee recruitment over the past four decades. Each of these decades can be characterized as focusing primarily on a limited, but somewhat different, set of independent (e.g., recruiters, recruitment sources, recruitment realism) and dependent variables (applicant attitudes, behavioral intentions and choices, organizational recruitment outcomes). Although methodological advances have been made and a body of knowledge accumulated, the vast majority of recruitment research has focused on a small portion of the labor market (new college graduates) and continues to study attitudes and behavioral intentions more than actual behaviors.
Marylène Gagné and Edward L. Deci
Self-determination theory is a theory of human motivation that has the potential to provide voluminous new knowledge to the field of organizational psychology. In this book, renowned self-determination theory researchers as well as renowned organizational psychology researchers have come together to present what they have been doing with the theory and what could be done with it in the future. This chapter presents a historical overview of the theory as it has been developed and used in general and organizational psychology over the past 40 years.