Kenneth M. Heilman
To successfully interact with the environment, goal-oriented movements made by human limbs must be guided by instructions from the brain. Loss of the ability to program purposeful skilled movements, in the absence of any motor, sensory, or cognitive deficit that could fully account for this disability, is called apraxia. Several types of apraxia were described by Hugo Liepmann in the beginning of the 20th century: ideomotor apraxia, where patients make spatial movement and postural errors as well as temporal errors, limb-kinetic apraxia, where patients are unable to perform precise independend and coordinated finger movements and ideational apraxia, where patients fail to correctly sequence a series of action. More recently, three other types of apraxia have been described: conceptual apraxia, where patients have a loss of mechanical knowledge; dissociation apraxia, where patients are impaired at performing a skilled act in response to stimuli in one modality but can perform normally when the stimulus is given in another modality; and conduction apraxia, where patients are impaired at action imitation. This chapter, using an historical approach, reviews the signs associated with each of these forms of apraxia, as well as their pathophysiology.
This chapter charts the history of aphasiology from antiquity to the recent past. An arbitrary line is drawn to include paragraphs of only those who passed, to avoid the review of large amounts of currently active research. References are provided for original work as well as other historical reviews, the review groups, scientific and conceptual developments in historical time periods, regions of work, disciplines, and schools of thought. Contemporary aphasiology is part of the neurosciences, both basic and applied, advancing at a pace so precipitous as to be almost disorienting. We are benefiting from today’s incredible advances in MRI, PET, functional MRI, voxel-based morphometry, transcortical stimulation and white matter diffusion imaging, genetic and molecular biology laboratory work, and continuing clinical experience. History is being made at almost every minute and is better recorded than ever before. An update is already overdue.
Christopher M. Filley
Behavioral neurology is the neurologic subspecialty devoted to the study of brain-behavior relationships. Whereas systematic thinking about the brain as the organ of the mind began in antiquity, modern investigation began in the early 19th century as cerebral localization of function became securely appreciated. Clinical-pathological correlation using the lesion method yielded many important insights, and, in the mid-20th century, Norman Geschwind defined behavioral neurology as it exists today. The scope of the field soon expanded to include focal and diffuse disorders across the lifespan, and powerful neuroimaging technologies then led to increasingly sophisticated understanding of the representation of cognition and emotion in the brain. While the term behavioral neurology refers mainly to subspecialty neurologists working in North America and Britain, the interests of behavioral neurologists are virtually identical to those of neuropsychologists, neuropsychiatrists, and many others around the world attracted to the neurology of behavior.
Margaret A. Naesser, Carole L. Palumbo, and Paula I. Martin
This chapter summarizes early computed tomography (CT) scan studies in stroke patients with aphasia from the 1970s through the 1990s. Studies took place at the Boston University Aphasia Research Center located at the Boston Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Earliest studies associated classical aphasia syndromes with lesions located in cortical language areas on CT scans. In the 1980s, studies reported that chronic aphasia could be associated with subcortical lesion only; emphasis was on lesion in white matter pathways. In the 1990s, studies showed that lesion sites on CT scans performed after 2 months poststroke could be predictive for recovery of auditory language comprehension, and meaningful nonfluent speech at 1 year poststroke. Lesion site patterns were identified for different outcome levels following specific language therapy programs. Some rare aphasia cases are included: left-handers with separate hemispheric dominance locations for speech versus comprehension in the same person; and a unilateral, word deafness case.
Allan V. Horwitz, Jerome C. Wakefield, and Lorenzo Lorenzo-Luaces
The symptoms that define depressive conditions have been recognized for millennia of medical history. The earliest Hippocratic writings not only define depression in similar ways as current works but also use context to differentiate ordinary sadness from depressive disorder. Sadness was understood as a natural reaction to loss; symptoms indicated a disorder only if they were not attributable to an identifiable trigger or if they displayed disproportionate intensity or duration to their triggers. The first serious approaches to subcategorize different types of depressive disorders developed in the seventeenth century. Despite agreement that a melancholic or psychotic form of depression existed, researchers debated the categorization of neurotic or nonpsychotic depressions until 1980 when the DSM- III introduced major depression as a unitary category. The DSM’s diagnostic system was historically anomalous because its diagnoses did not consider the context in which symptoms arose. The only exception within the DSM, for uncomplicated symptoms that follow bereavement, was removed from the DSM-5 in 2013 so that depressive diagnoses now thoroughly conflate adaptive responses to loss with pathological depressions.
David W. Loring and Bruce Hermann
This article reviews the shared history of epilepsy and neuropsychology and highlights the clinical and scientific progress in both disciplines. It considers the role of neuropsychology in understanding the impact of the epilepsies and how cognitive studies of epilepsy and epilepsy surgery helped elucidate human brain function. It begins by focusing on the late 1800s/early 1900s, when intelligence testing became available and widely used in epilepsy and neuropsychology, before turning to the 1920s–1950s, when a clearer picture of the different epilepsy syndromes and their associated EEG and clinical seizure features emerged. It then examines surgical treatment of the epilepsies in the period beginning in the late 1940s, along with the conflict between the eugenics movement and the goal of providing better care of people with epilepsy within specialized epilepsy institutions. It also looks at the risk factors for cognitive impairment and the effects of EEG abnormalities on neuropsychological function.
Francois Boller, Guido Gainotti, Dario Grossi, and Giuseppe Vallar
Early Italian clinicians and researchers dedicated their work to human neuropsychology mainly through analysis of variations of cognitive and behavioral functions caused by brain damage. The systematic development of neuropsychology in Italy started in the early 1960s in Milan with the neurologist Ennio De Renzi and his collaborators (mainly Luigi A. Vignolo, early on) in the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases. The “Milan group” investigated several neuropsychological deficits caused by focal hemispheric lesions in human brain-damaged patients, developing standardized tests and advanced statistical methods applied to the clinical diagnosis and the rehabilitation of aphasia. It first used the new imaging techniques (CT scan) in the 1970s to correlate lesion sites with behavioral deficits. Since then, neuropsychology and neuropsychological research, both basic and applied, have developed extensively in other parts of Italy and include clinical diagnosis and rehabilitation of patients with brain damage or dysfunction throughout the life span.
Hans Markowitsch and Angelica Staniloiu
The historical roots of memory research—mainly from the period between 1870 and 1920—are described with emphasis on human memory. First, data from experimental psychology are reviewed; thereafter principal contributions from the old traditions of psychiatry and psychoanalysis are given and then relations between brain tissue damage and memory deficits are outlined. Experimental as well as clinical studies of that time already provided evidence for theoretical ideas on memory systems, which resemble those en vogue today. Furthermore, significant and still valid findings were reported on the contribution of bottleneck structures of the limbic system for mempry encoding. Among these, the mammillary bodies, thalamic nuclei, and the medial temporal lobe were most consistently mentioned. Furthermore, early findings from psychiatric patients revealed similar forms of dissociative states as found presently and indicated that these disease conditions occur much more in young than in older adults.
John D. Wasserman and Alan S. Kaufman
The concepts of measurement and theory have always been central to psychological science. This chapter reviews the history of applied mental tests and the ideas behind them, with a specific emphasis on individually administered intellectual measures in the era of scientific psychology (i.e., after Wundt). The chapter discusses theoretical underpinnings associated with mental tests and test/theory falsifications. Beginning with the contributions of Francis Galton and J. McKeen Cattell and continuing through the present, the topics discussed include anthropometric testing, Charles Spearman’s two-factor theory and general intelligence factor, Alfred Binet and David Wechsler’s pragmatic approaches, Raymond B. Cattell and John L. Horn’s fluid and crystallized intelligence, John B. Carroll’s three-stratum model of cognitive abilities, and Alexander R. Luria’s conceptualization of brain-based, cognitive processing. The chapter closes with a discussion about theory-building and falsification in mental testing and the importance of reconciling theory with clinical practice in psychological assessment.
Nancy Hebben and Margaret O'Connor
The Veterans Administration’s response to WWII altered the fields of psychology and neurology and made it possible for the Boston VA Hospital to evolve into an environment where neuropsychology, aphasiology, and behavioral neurology could jointly flourish. Starting with Harold Goodglass, Edith Kaplan, and Norman Geschwind in the 1950s, a multi-disciplinary group of clinicians and scientists helped usher in a transition from holistic “black box” empiricist models of the brain to models that were more localizationist and modular. Under the influence of this pioneering trio of astute observers, experimentalists, and thinkers, the Boston VA became the epicenter of basic research in human cognitive and behavioral neuroscience in the world. While signaling a revolution in psychology that unified neurobiology and behavioral principles, the work done at the Boston VA established a direct link from this neuroscience of the mind to patient care, especially as it affected the veterans of the United States.
Tatia M.C. Lee, Wang Kai, and Simon L. Collinson
Clinical neuropsychology in Asia has emerged from the interactions of multiple processes, including the development of psychology and its subdisciplines worldwide, the entering of psychology into Asia and ongoing intellectual influences from outside of Asia, indigenous responses to those external forces, and homegrown initiatives in studying brain-behavior relationships prior to and since the beginnings of modern neuropsychology. This chapter reviews the history of neuropsychology in China, Hong Kong, Singapore, and other Asian regions. With globalization and increasing ease of information exchange, neuropsychological practice in Asia will continue to be shaped by influence from the West interacting with the indigenization process to shape the development of neuropsychology in Asia. Rapid development of neuroscience leads to cutting-edge findings and discovery of brain-behavior relationships, which has and will continue to be one of the rich sources of information that guides and shapes neuropsychological practice in Asia and worldwide.
Christian Derouesné and Jacques Poirier
Neuropsychology in France has a long tradition, beginning with Paul Broca, Jean-Martin Charcot, and their followers who established an anatomo-clinical approach, operating primarily within the field of neurology. Henri Hécaen at Sainte Anne and François Lhermitte at the Salpêtrière in the 1950s–1960s introduced the methodology of experimental and cognitive international neuropsychology into French neuropsychology. Subsequently, most research in neuropsychology has been conducted by psychologists in collaboration with national research organizations. The development and practice of clinical neuropsychology grew in the 1980s in response to needs for the diagnosis and care of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. In the end, advances in the science and psychology of the field of neuropsychology have resulted in its institutionalization within France, but its establishment as an independent profession and discipline remains incomplete.
The history of the development of neuropsychology in The Netherlands is described. First some early descriptions of the effects of brain lesions on behavior are mentioned. Subsequently the remarkable lack of interest in neuropsychology in the 19th century is described, contrasting with the important changes in France, Germany, and England. Neuropsychology began to blossom in the second half of the 20th century. In the early 1980s neuropsychology courses were developed and a series of textbooks was published. In the 1990s chairs for neuropsychology were founded at most universities. A separate organization for professionals was created, as well as a curriculum for becoming a specialized professional neuropsychologist.
Ella B. Teague, Erica P. Meltzer, Remington Stafford, Jamie T. Twaite, Carole Filangieri, and Joan C. Borod
The chapter outlines philosophical and prescientific ideas regarding emotion, as well as early physiological and psychological discoveries that formed the basis upon which modern neuropsychology rests. In addition, to elucidate developments throughout the history of the neuropsychological study of emotion, the chapter discusses important theoretical considerations in emotion research. The central focus of the chapter, however, is on neuropsychological studies beginning in the mid-twentieth century. These studies are organized into important areas in the study of emotion, such as laterality, emotional expression, emotional perception, and emotional experience. Finally, the chapter provides information regarding the measurement of emotion via neuropsychological test batteries.
Anthony H. Risser
In 1929, eminent Philadelphia neurologist Theodore Weisenburg invited Bryn Mawr College psychology graduate student Katharine McBride to join him in a funded, multi-year study of the assessment and empirical classification of aphasia. The result was their co-authored 1935 book Aphasia: A Clinical and Psychological Study, a novel work that advanced an essentially equal weighting of standardized psychological testing alongside the clinical neurological examination. “Orphaned” by the death of Weisenburg and a career change by McBride, Aphasia would nonetheless become a significant and influential anchor point to the subsequent development of aphasia batteries, albeit one that would remain in stagnancy as a product of 1929–1935. A pioneer, it can be argued that McBride was one of the best neuropsychologists we never had. Her subsequent career in higher education attests to what we missed by not having her within our profession.
Right-Handers Speak with the Left Hemisphere, Left-Handers with the Right: The Rise and Fall of a Neuropsychological Hypothesis
Lauren Julius Harris
In 1865 Paul Broca stated, “we speak with the left hemisphere.” In many accounts of Broca’s work, he was referring to right-handers and meant that left-handers speak with the right hemisphere—what I call the “reversal hypothesis.” They go on to note his error in light of current evidence that the majority of left-handers speak with the left. Eling (1984) called such accounts misrepresentations, arguing that Broca’s analysis of the relation between cerebral control for speech and handedness was more compatible with current evidence. He suggested that our better understanding of the relation might have come sooner “had the original papers been properly read” (p. 159). Who, then, originated the “reversal hypothesis,” when and how did it rise to become a neuropsychological “rule,” when and how did it fall, and did Broca ever correct the record or change his mind? These questions and more are addressed in this chapter.