Steven P. Broglio
The acute evaluation and management of concussion are among the most complex and challenging injuries medical practitioners face. The variability in clinical presentation necessitates a systematic approach to the injury evaluation. The evaluation should include a thorough injury history and clinical examination that is supported by objective measures of mental status and motor control. The integration of all information should be used in making the clinical diagnosis.
Tracey E. Rizzuto, Katie E. Cherry, and Jared A. LeDoux
Aging trends worldwide raise awareness for the need to understand the impact of cognitive aging on the work lives and productivity of older adults. By confronting actual and perceptual challenges associated with cognitive aging, organizations can better support this vital workforce segment. This chapter describes the effects of aging on select aspects of cognitive functioning, and reviews research from laboratory and on-the-job studies to address how the performance of job tasks and other life activities may be affected. Various cognitive aging dimensions and their implications for job performance are discussed. In addition, methodological concerns and challenges associated with cognitive aging research are described, along with new directions for successful aging among late-career workers.
Adam T. Gerstenecker and Benjamin T. Mast
This chapter examines the role of psychologists in the rehabilitation of older adults. The chapter begins with a review of the changes expected to take place in the population demographics of the United States and its impact on geriatric rehabilitation. The next section highlights core concepts in geriatric rehabilitation, as well as predictors of successful outcome. In the final sections of the chapter, psychologists’ roles within geriatric rehabilitation will be examined, with particular emphasis placed upon assessing cognitive impairment and depression, and specific interventions for treating depression in geriatric rehabilitation patients.
Mark R. Wilson
In sport psychology, the relationship between competitive anxiety and performance has been one of the most debated and researched topics of enquiry. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are still unclear, as are the reasons why performance can sometimes be optimal (“clutch” performance) and sometimes far below what should be achieved (“choking”). The current chapter integrates research findings and models from the neuroscience, cognitive psychology, human movement science, and sport performance literature to offer a potential explanatory framework, especially with respect to self-paced, visually guided skills. The mediating role of visual attention is implicated, as it has been proposed to be central to both the top-down control of motor planning and the effects of anxiety on cognitive performance. Contemporary research testing the effects of anxiety on visual attention (particularly the quiet eye) in performance environments, and the efficacy of attentional training programs, are discussed.
Daniel A. Briley
As a field, behavior genetics has a long and often underappreciated focus on environmental and situational factors. This chapter describes the methodological details and empirical findings of this line of work, as well as what situation research can gain from behavior genetics and vice versa. Genetically informative designs offer tools to quantify the extent to which people actively create their situational experiences as opposed to randomly encountering them, and novel advances in situation research have the potential to clarify the scattered history of environmental variables in behavioral genetics. Current progress in personality psychology will be highlighted. Parallels between behavior genetics and personality work can be found both in terms of mechanisms (e.g., gene-environment correlation and gene × environment interaction contrasting with selection effects and person × situation effects) and explanatory pitfalls. Researchers interested in delineating the pathways from situations to behavior would do well to draw from and build upon work in behavior genetics.
Lance M. Rappaport, Sage E. Hawn, Cassie Overstreet, and Ananda B. Amstadter
Given the critical role that emotion dysregulation plays in many psychiatric disorders, there is a need to understand the biological underpinnings of emotion regulation deficits. This chapter opens with a brief overview of emotion regulation and constructs that fall under its broad umbrella. Next, it provides a brief primer of behavioral genetic research methods, summarizes existing literature regarding the heritability of emotional dysregulation, provides an overview of molecular genetic research methods, and reviews extant molecular genetic literature on emotion regulation. Finally, the chapter reviews the limitations of existing research and identifies promising areas of future inquiry that may clarify the underlying structure of emotion dysregulation and identify the role of common genetic loci in associations between emotion dysregulation and psychopathology.
Matt McGue and Brian M. Hicks
We review behavioral and biometrical genetic research aimed at characterizing the nature of the familial aggregation of adolescent substance use and abuse. Twin and adoption studies have shown that genetic factors contribute to individual differences in adolescent substance use phenotypes. These studies have also documented the importance of the shared environment. Biometrical analyses of large samples of twins show that the contributions of genetic and shared environmental factors to substance use phenotypes change markedly between adolescence and early adulthood. The importance of genetic influence increases with age as the importance of shared environmental influences declines. Although only a small number of relevant genetic variants have been identified at this time, they show a similar pattern of increasing association with substance use behavior with age. A major question continues to be how genetic and environmental factors operate jointly to influence the development of complex behavioral phenotypes such as substance use.
David Alais and Randolph Blake
Many important aspects of objects and scenes are fundamentally ambiguous in the retinal images. This ambiguity at the input stage to vision poses a fundamental challenge in perceptual organization as the competing interpretations invariably give rise to a bistable behavior in which the two competing percepts alternate over time. The most common approach to studying visual ambiguity is binocular rivalry, in which two different images are presented, one to each eye. Here we review the basic properties of binocular rivalry and discuss its links with perceptual organization. We also address the role of attention and top-down influences on the interpretation of visual ambiguity, as well as recent work highlighting the moderating influence of multisensory context on binocular rivalry.
Mary Fristad and Elizabeth Nick
This chapter reviews bipolar spectrum disorders (bipolar I, bipolar II, bipolar disorder not otherwise specified, and cyclothymic disorder) in childhood and adolescence. The history of the diagnosis in youth, including recent increased public and professional interest, and surrounding controversy is reviewed. Attention is given to prevalence, incidence, similarities and differences in presentation, course, and comorbidities among child, adolescent, and adult bipolar spectrum disorders. Assessment issues are reviewed, including longitudinal and multiinformant perspectives, instruments, strategies, tools, and assessment challenges with youth. Examples of symptom manifestation in youth are provided. Genetic, cognitive, neuroanatomical, psychosocial, and environmental risks for youth bipolar spectrum disorders are discussed. Evidence-based treatments reviewed include commonly prescribed mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics, alternative biological treatments, adjunctive psychotherapies, and complementary and alternative treatments. Finally, future directions for the study, assessment, monitoring, and treatment of youth bipolar spectrum disorders are discussed.
Steven W. Zucker
Border ownership seems instantaneous and automatic, emerging as rapidly as figure separates from background. But this apparent immediacy hides an extremely subtle problem that lies at an intermediate level of visual processing. Somehow border ownership (the process) must integrate upward-flowing image-derived information about boundaries with downward-flowing figural information derived from boundary arrangement. It is related to Gestalt notions of closure. To appreciate border ownership as a process, we contrast it with a more traditional pathway to surface inferences, from boundaries to stereo and, finally, to shape from shading. In the end border ownership emerges as a rather different concept from these more geometric visual computations, thus establishing two poles to perceptual organization. The challenge is integrating the geometric content of borders with the topological content of figures within standard modeling formalisms. We suggest an expanded framework based on mathematical and physiological ideas, perhaps involving local field potentials.
Friedhelm C. Hummel and Leonardo G. Cohen
This article explains the role of brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation. The outline of this article is formed by the characterization of some of the problems faced in the field of nuerorehabilitation. Furthermore, it describes results of studies conducted to understand the functional changes in the motor cortices of hemispheres after stroke. This article finally discusses some of the interventional approaches proposed to improve motor function. Stroke is the main cause of long-term disability among adults. The disability resulting from stroke impairs the quality of life. Post-stroke recovery remains an important clinical focus. Various modalities of brain have been proposed as strategies to enhance motor function when combined with conventional neurorehabilitative interventions after a stroke. Before these approaches can reach the clinic, their results need to be replicated in larger samples and controlled conditions to determine their value.
Kenneth M. Heilman
To successfully interact with the environment, goal-oriented movements made by human limbs must be guided by instructions from the brain. Loss of the ability to program purposeful skilled movements, in the absence of any motor, sensory, or cognitive deficit that could fully account for this disability, is called apraxia. Several types of apraxia were described by Hugo Liepmann in the beginning of the 20th century: ideomotor apraxia, where patients make spatial movement and postural errors as well as temporal errors, limb-kinetic apraxia, where patients are unable to perform precise independend and coordinated finger movements and ideational apraxia, where patients fail to correctly sequence a series of action. More recently, three other types of apraxia have been described: conceptual apraxia, where patients have a loss of mechanical knowledge; dissociation apraxia, where patients are impaired at performing a skilled act in response to stimuli in one modality but can perform normally when the stimulus is given in another modality; and conduction apraxia, where patients are impaired at action imitation. This chapter, using an historical approach, reviews the signs associated with each of these forms of apraxia, as well as their pathophysiology.
Lynn M. Maher
Broca’s aphasia serves as a platform for discussions of the cognitive and neural mechanisms of sentence production and how those systems break down in individuals with damage in left inferior frontal regions beyond Broca’s area, suggesting a role for such regions in syntactic processing. Standardized and nonstandardized diagnostic tools facilitate assessment of comprehension and production of grammatical functions that can be impaired in Broca’s aphasia. Several treatment approaches address impairment in sentence production that emanates across various processes in sentence formulation. The nomenclature surrounding Broca’s aphasia provides a launching pad to guide analysis and intervention for the communication impairments experienced by these individuals.
Joseph Classen and Katja Stefan
This article reviews several protocols of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)-induced plasticity. rTMS, when applied to the motor cortex or other cortical regions of the brain, may induce effects that outlast the stimulation period. The neural plasticity, which emerges as a result of such interventions, has been studied to gain insight into plasticity mechanisms of the brain. In two protocols the structure of rTMS trains is modified, informed by the knowledge of the physiological properties of the corticospinal system. Pulse configuration, stimulus frequency, stimulus intensity, the duration of the application period, and the total number of stimuli are some variables that have to be taken into account when reviewing the physiological effects of rTMS. This article also introduces the concept of patterned rTMS pulses and rTMS with ischemic nerve block. In addition, rTMS has raised considerable interest because of its therapeutic potential; however, much needs to be done in this field.
Andrew C. Papanicolaou, Roozbeh Rezaie, Shalini Narayana, Asim F. Choudhri, James W. Wheless, Eduardo M. Castillo, James E. Baumgartner, and Frederick A. Boop
The main clinical application of functional neuroimaging is mapping cortical regions containing part of the circuitry necessary for somatosensory, motor, and language functions and assessing hemispheric dominance for both language and encoding operations of memory prior to several types of brain surgery. Presently, it is used in conjunction with the classical invasive methods of brain mapping. This chapter presents the case for replacing invasive methods with noninvasive ones given the limitations of the invasive methods that render them unjustifiable as “gold standards.” Evidence is presented that the efficacy of the two types of methods in reducing morbidity, facilitating surgical planning, and enhancing surgical outcome is comparable. Additional advantages of noninvasive presurgical brain mapping are also discussed. The chapter concludes that there are no compelling reasons for invasive mapping in most patients whenever noninvasive methods are available.
Robert J. McCaffrey, Julie K. Lynch, and Holly James Westervelt
The origins of clinical neuropsychology were founded in the diagnostic methods for identifying cerebral damage and, although this remains an important focus of the field, clinical neuropsychology is also focused upon understanding the functional consequences of neuropsychological dysfunction and on methods of treating or managing neuropsychological dysfunction. Neuropsychological research has also expanded beyond neurology to psychology, where delineating the neuropsychological correlates of psychological disorder has been of particular interest. Following a brief history of neuropsychology, this chapter discusses neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with neurological damage or disease. The discussion will then turn its focus to psychological disorders, with a review of the neuropsychological deficiencies that have been associated with various Axis I and Axis II disorders. The objective of this chapter is to provide information of potential utility to the psychotherapist or psychologist in understanding the neuropsychological underpinnings of psychological disorders, as well as the psychological and behavioral consequences of neurological conditions.
This article establishes the concept of a methodological approach to combine brain imaging with brain stimulation. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool that allows perturbing neural activity, in time and space, in a noninvasive manner. This approach allows the study of the brain-behaviour relationship. Under certain circumstances, the influence of one region on other, called the effective connectivity, can be measured. Functional connectivity is the extent of correlation in brain activity measured across a number of spatially distinct brain regions. This tool of connectivity can be applied to any dataset acquired with brain-mapping tools. However, its interpretation is complex. Also, the technical complexity of the combined studies needs to be resolved. Future studies may benefit from focusing on neurochemical transmission in specific neural circuits and on temporal dynamics of cortico-cortical interactions.
Charles C. Chan
The essentiality of seeing people within a particular social context and their respective temporal contexts of livelihood is the core of community psychology. Community psychology takes an ecological perspective. As such, it does not stop at the immediate family, circle of friends, or work collegues, but includes the intermediate level and macro-level contexts. Hence, community psychology is demonstrably different from the rest of psychology both in conceptualization and methodology. Communities are social systems that serve to meet human needs; therefore, community psychology can be defined as understanding the needs of people and the resources available to meet those needs. This article initially introduces community psychology and its central values and principles in general and then explains the aspects of community psychology in Chinese societies. However, it states that the lack of proper literature on the history of development in community psychology of China is a hurdle in its study.
Nearly all behavioral traits, ranging from personality traits such as neuroticism to schizophrenia and autism, are genetically influenced. With only minor exceptions, all are genetically complex—meaning that inheritance is not simply dominant or recessive or sex-linked, but follows more complex patterns indicative of more complex mechanisms. Most risk variants identified to date have only small effects on risk, and, in most cases, many risk variants at many risk loci interact with environmental factors to produce the phenotype. Such complexity has led to great challenges in increasing our knowledge of the inheritance of behavioral traits. Recent methodological advances have provided an improved set of tools that has led to advances in our understanding of the genetic influences on a range of behavioral traits. This chapter examines some of the issues involved that tend to make this a difficult problem and some of the solutions now being employed to approach those problems.
The clinical utility and psychometric properties of computer-based neuropsychological assessment measures have been widely discussed in the literature. Regardless of the outcomes of scholarly debates regarding these issues, computerized baseline testing of athletes has become a hallmark (if not “de rigeur”) component of concussion management programs. The current chapter discusses issues related to the equivalency of computer-based and paper-based neurocognitive assessment, methodological issues related to the use of computer-based neurocognitive assessments, and hardware and software issues related to the use of computer-based neurocognitive assessments.