Donald F. Moores
The oral/manual “methods” controversy arose more than 200 years ago. Although many variations exist, there have been three basic approaches. An “oral” approach concentrates on the development of the spoken language of a community. What is now known as a bilingual-bicultural (Bi-Bi) approach emphasizes the development of the natural sign language of a community as the first language, then teaches the majority language through reading. A third approach supports the development of a sign system based on the syntax of a spoken language and modifications of a sign language in instruction. This system can be used either alone or in coordination with speech, known as simultaneous communication (Sim Com), or alone. A fourth approach, known as total communication (TC), encourages the use of all forms of communication, dependent on individual needs. These longstanding debates have not been resolved after two centuries, and represent different perceptions of deafness, the requirements for leading a full, rich life, and resultant educational and social goals.
The oral method was dominant from 1880 to 1960. Since then, constant change has occurred, with sign languages and sign systems receiving significant support. Recent global developments in neonatal screening, early intervention programs, cochlear implants, and the growth of an “inclusion” model in education have major implications for instruction and for the development of language and communication skills in deaf individuals.
Rik Carl D’Amato, Christina Zafiris, Erica McConnell, and Raymond S. Dean
Lightner Witmer has been credited with the underlying conceptualization of school psychology. He advocated a multidisciplinary approach to serving children through an individualized psychological examination which would lead to specialized interventions. This direct service model led to a long-term focus on evaluations in school psychology. The field has struggled to move from a focus on individual children to more evidence-based work with families, classrooms, home–school partnerships, learning, schooling, and consultation with systems like hospitals and the educational enterprise. The purpose of this chapter is to define school psychology, understand related definitions in psychology and education, and study past and present influences in the field, such as a consideration of the major school psychology conferences, professional organizations, publications, problem solving models, and related research advancements. This chapter attempts to understand where the field has been, recognize history makers, consider current issues, and help predict where the field should be moving in the future. Details concerning how to become a history maker are included.
Harry G. Lang
A history of the education of deaf persons is by its very nature a study of societal and cultural change. This notion is epitomized in tracing prevailing attitudes about deaf people and how they learn. Certain fallacious attitudes, for instance, have lingered, taking on new forms over time, even with the more recent efforts of scholars to examine the issues systematically. This is especially true with regard to the issue of language and its relationship to academic achievement. That deaf students are visual learners and may benefit from a visual language, rather than an auditory one, has never been universally accepted as an established tenet guiding formal instruction. Whether speaking of the seventeenth century’s metaphysical association of the human voice with the soul or divine spirit, or twenty-first-century decisions in some schools to forbid the use of signs by children with cochlear implants, misconceptions, as well as insufficient bridging of research and practice, have thwarted efforts to effectively teach language and academic content to deaf children. The well-documented cognitive and linguistic developmental delays in deaf children continue to be viewed by many as the result of deafness per se. But as Marschark, Lang, and Albertini (2002) summarize, “if there is a problem, it is much more likely to be found in the way we teach and what we expect from deaf students than in the students themselves” (p. 7). Such an understanding of deafness as an educational condition shapes the historical highlights discussed in this chapter.