At the Interface of Work and Health: A Consideration of the Health Gradient using Self-Determination Theory
Maynor G. González, Christopher P. Niemiec, and Geoffrey C. Williams
A considerable body of research has pointed toward an association between occupational status and health outcomes, such that employees in lower-status occupations experience poorer health outcomes and shorter life expectancies than those in higher-status occupations. These differences in health across incremental levels of occupational status are referred to as the health gradient and have been linked to social, psychological, and economic factors that distinguish various levels of the employment hierarchy. However, a theoretical framework that may explain the psychosocial mechanisms that underlie these associations has not been adequately established. In this chapter we discuss research on the health gradient and several of its psychosocial determinants, describe research from self-determination theory on the promotion of physical and psychological health, present an application of self-determination theory to understanding the mechanisms that account for the health gradient, and call for future research on this topic.
Michael A. West, Anna Topakas, and Jeremy F. Dawson
This chapter describes research into organizational culture and climate in the health care industry, and explores how both climate and culture affect the performance of health care organizations. Given the fundamental importance of health care in society, the topic is significant for scholars in this area because of the potential contribution that can be made to improving patient care and the health of communities. The chapter therefore offers a model of crucial factors that shape culture and climate in health care organizations, describes relevant research and addresses issues such as: the definition of performance in this context; links among climate, culture, and performance; culture and climate for patient safety; professional subcultures and climates for multidisciplinary team working. The chapter closes by offering tentative conclusions about the cultural and climate characteristics that research suggests are keys to the effective performance of health care organizations.
Zella E. Moore
Counseling performers in distress is a highly gratifying yet complex professional endeavor that requires the practitioner to be flexible, self-aware, and committed to engaging in evidence-based practice regularly guided by the ever-evolving scientific literature. Performers come to the attention of sport/performance psychologists with an array of personal needs and levels of psychological distress. To effectively meet their needs, practitioners must have a conceptual understanding of the construct of distress, be able to assess distress along the continuum of severity, determine appropriate targets of intervention, and choose an efficacious intervention that remediates subclinical or clinical concerns while promoting psychological health and well-being. This chapter therefore provides a conceptual and practical understanding of the nonclinical, subclinical, and clinical needs of performers; describes an evidence-based approach to assessment and treatment; and highlights how setting, counselor, client, and cultural variables can affect the counseling process.
Anthony P. Kontos
The purpose of the current chapter is to examine the role of culture/ethnicity on performance. After beginning with an overview of culture/ethnicity issues in the United States, the remainder of the chapter is organized into three sections: cultural/ethnic factors related to performance, factors that influence culture/ethnicity, and strategies for integrating culture/ethnicity into performance-based practice. The first section examines cultural/ethnic awareness and understanding related to historical issues, acculturation, and worldview. Challenges that affect the performance of cultural/ethnic groups, including “crossing-over” and racism, are explored. In the second section, factors including age, gender, and socioeconomic status that interact with culture/ethnicity to influence performance are reviewed. The third section discusses strategies to integrate culture/ethnicity with performance enhancement, including communication, cultural exchange, and cultivating opportunities for under-represented groups. A model for understanding the role of culture/ethnicity in regard to performance is proposed.
Jean Côté and Bruce Abernethy
This chapter examines the personal and contextual factors of youth sport that affect sport expertise and developmental outcomes. The developmental model of sport participation (DMSP) is used as a comprehensive framework that outlines different pathways of involvement in sport. Activities and contexts that promote continued sport participation and expert performance are discussed as the building blocks of all effective youth sport programs. This chapter provides evidence that performance in sport, participation, and psychosocial development should be considered as a whole instead of as separate entities by youth sport programmers. Adults in youth sport (i.e., coaches, parents, sport psychologists, administrators) must consider the differing implications of concepts such as deliberate play, deliberate practice, sampling, specialization, and program structure at different stages of an athlete's talent development. Seven postulates are presented regarding important transitions in youth sport and the role that sampling and deliberate play, as opposed to specialization and deliberate practice, can have during childhood in promoting continued participation and elite performance in sport.
Vimla L. Patel, David R. Kaufman, and Thomas G. Kannampallil
The study of diagnostic expertise initially focused on characterizing the reasoning process and, later, on understanding the nature of expert knowledge and its impact on performance, including memory, comprehension, and reasoning. This research demonstrated that medical expertise is not a simple construct, and its development is characterized by non-linear growth in skills and knowledge. Facilitated by new technology, recent research has moved toward real-world studies (or a combination of both laboratory-based and naturalistic studies), with automated and often precise methods of data collection and analysis. Findings from these studies contribute to our knowledge of medical experts’ performance, which often varies as a function of domain complexity as well as the clinician’s ability to recognize and correct medical errors. The role of cognitive science in modeling diagnostic reasoning plays a significant role when building successful systems to support reasoning processes of individual experts, teams, and trainees in real-world settings.
Marc V. Jones
Sport is an ideal environment in which to explore the influence of emotion on performance and the efficacy of strategies to regulate emotions. In performance settings such as sport, emotions are important at a group level and at an individual level, influencing physical functioning, cognitive functioning, motivation, and, ultimately, performance. The emotional responses to performance settings can be aligned with specific cardiovascular changes into identifiable challenge and threat states with particular performance consequences. A number of strategies to regulate emotions are outlined based on Gross’ model, and the development of the ability to regulate emotions is discussed along with individual differences that influence the use, and efficacy, of emotion regulation strategies. Although regulating emotions may help achieve the most suitable emotional state for competition, the possible cost of engaging in this process for performance on subsequent tasks is discussed. The chapter concludes with potential areas for future research.
Steve M. Jex, Michael T. Sliter, and Ashlie Britton
Although much has been written about stress and well-being in the workplace, research and theory in this area have been limited by an almost complete emphasis on individual-level processes. This chapter addresses this limitation by exploring the impact of organizational climate and culture on stress and well-being in organizational settings. The basic thesis proposed in this chapter is that climate and culture can affect the stress process both directly and indirectly, and can either exacerbate the effect of workplace stressors or act as a source of resilience to employees. The chapter begins by briefly defining what is meant by “stress,” “well-being,” “organizational climate,” and “organizational culture.” This is important because all of these terms have been confused and frequently misused, even in the research literature. It then examines the various ways that climate and culture may affect the stress and well-being of employees, along with empirical examples of these. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the practical implications of the impact of climate and culture, and provides a number of suggestions for future research.
Emily A. Roper
This chapter begins with an introduction to the important terms and concepts specific to understanding the body of work in gender and identity in sport. A brief review of women's history in sport and physical activity is provided, including discussion of Title IX, women and girls’ physical activity/sport participation patterns, barriers to gender equity in sport, and why an understanding of the social context is critical for sport and performance professionals. The ways in which females experience, perceive, and physically use their bodies is also addressed. The extensive body of work devoted to the homonegative and heterosexist climate of sport is outlined, with specific attention devoted to the bias and discrimination that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face within sport and the role that sport and performance professionals play in working toward an inclusive and safe sport environment for all participants. The emergence and growth of feminist sport psychology is addressed with an overview and examples of feminist practice and research in the field. Suggestions for future work in the field are provided throughout the chapter and, in particular, how some of the approaches and research frameworks presented could be used to enhance our understanding of sport and performance psychology.
This chapter reviews research regarding retirees’ health and fiscal and psychological well-being in retirement. The chapter begins with a brief discussion of the meaning of health and fiscal and psychological well-being in retirement. It then introduces theoretical conceptualizations and relevant theories that may explain retirees’ wellness states in retirement. The chapter then shifts to review the empirical findings related to these phenomena. Specifically, the causes, consequences, and time-associated changes of these well-being states are examined. The chapter concludes with a consideration of future directions that may improve research in this field.
Christopher P. Nemeth
Health-care activities rely on the acquisition, portrayal, and analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic information as an integral part of patient care. As a service provided by multiple participants, the communication of information is embedded in nearly every aspect of health care. There is much talk of communication as an issue that needs to be improved. This is often because other issues such as equipment research and development and government policy are outside care providers’ immediate range of influence. A good deal of the discussion about communication is uninformed by any real understanding of communication as a field. It is also based on certain presumptions such as more data equal greater understanding, or completeness (rather than salience) equates to quality, or changing the medium (e.g., from face-to-face to e-mail) does not affect message. In fact, changes to communication may not yield direct benefits because other stronger forces such as economic, social, organizational, and legal influences make health care what it is. This chapter invites attention to the nature of the health care work setting, the communication of information through verbal exchanges and artifacts, and efforts that have the potential to improve team communication and care.
After summarizing prevalent models of leadership in sport, the chapter identifies the inconsistencies among the guidelines emanating from these models. Based on the three distinct manifestations of sport—egalitarian sport, elite sport, and entertainment sport, a reconciliation and synthesis is offered based on the different purposes of sport participation—pursuit of pleasure and pursuit of excellence.
Penny McCullagh, Barbi Law, and Diane Ste-Marie
In this chapter we review theoretical and conceptual approaches in the sport and exercise psychology literature, as well as recognizing research in other domains (performing arts, education, medicine, health) to determine the influence that watching oneself or others can have on one's own performance, as well as on psychological variables such as self-efficacy, anxiety, and self-regulation. We recognize that various terms have been used to describe this phenomenon, including observational learning, modeling, and self-modeling, and we also review recent research that shows how athletes use observation in realistic sport settings. Finally, a brief discussion of role models and the influence that technology has had, including the influence of virtual models, is highlighted. Suggestions for future research are included throughout the chapter.
Performance, by its very nature, epitomizes the construct of human motivation (i.e., individuals being moved to act). Motivation research therefore plays a vital role in providing a better understanding of the conditions and processes that support optimal performance, as well as a performer's well-being, development, functioning, and persistence. In this chapter, the central components and phenomena addressed within the meta-theory of self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000, 2008) are outlined. A critique of empirical work related to performance and achievement is then provided before the focus shifts to an appraisal of a number of key issues related to sport performance and measurement. In the penultimate section, a number of applications aimed at supporting optimal performance and engagement are presented in the form of supports for basic psychological needs (i.e., for autonomy, competence, and relatedness). Last, a number of future research directions are presented and discussed.
Lois E. Tetrick and José María Peiró
Occupational health and safety reflects the effect of the work environment on employees, groups and work units in organizations, and organizations as a whole. This chapter provides an overview of the research on workplace safety and specifically discusses safety training, regulatory focus, safety climate, leadership, and job design as they relate to safety. Additionally, the literature on occupational health, drawing heavily on the occupational stress literature, discusses the employee-employer relationship from a psychological contract perspective, including climate for sexual harassment, collective burnout and its contagion, recovery, and organizational wellness programs. Particular attention is given to primary interventions to enhance safety, health, and well-being of employees and to eliminate the harmful effects that may arise through individual characteristics, group/work unit factors, and aspects of the organization.
John Heil and Leslie Podlog
Pain is a prevalent factor in competitive sport and physical performance domains such as dance, military operations, and outdoor adventure activities. This chapter synthesizes pain scholarship from various performance domains, drawing from medical research, sport science, and case study reports to identify best pain assessment and intervention practices. The chapter also examines the function of pain at the extremes of performance. Seven topic areas are covered: the psychosocial/performance literature on pain appraisal and coping, principles of pain science and practice, psychological intervention, psychological perspectives on pain medication, chronic pain and injury, remarkable feats of pain tolerance, and concluding comments and suggestions for future research.
Dave Collins and Sara Kamin
The performance coach (PC) is an increasingly ubiquitous feature of many performance environments. Often seen as having its genesis in the sport environment, this performance emphasis for PCs stands interestingly at odds with a groundswell of opinion against such a sole focus for sport practitioners. This chapter considers this tension, together with the objectives underpinning knowledge and modus operandi that can represent good practice in PCing. Through this means, we offer a position statement on the PC field, examining concerns and highlighting issues for its future progression.
Daniel Gould and E. Missy Wright
The psychology of coaching can be viewed as the scientific study and application of the practice of supporting individuals in achieving specific personal and organizational performance goals, as well as the achievement of nonperformance personal development. Once only associated with sport, coaching psychology is used today to assist individuals of all ages in a wide variety of environments (e.g., military, business, schools). Although the practice of coaching has expanded greatly, research and theory in the area lags. To help rectify this situation, this chapter summarizes the psychology of coaching research, identifies gaps in its knowledge base, and outlines future research directions. This is accomplished first by looking at the traditional context of sport, then expanding to other nonsport areas where coaching is being applied. It is concluded that instead of conducting research in isolated domain-specific silos, researchers should integrate research knowledge across areas.
Kate F. Hays
This chapter addresses the psychology of performance in domains including sports, the performing arts, business/executive coaching, and high-risk professions. Performance psychology and sport psychology are described as interrelated fields. At the same time, with its long history of research as well as practice, sport psychology holds a particular, privileged position within the broader field of performance psychology. The roots of performance psychology lie in the fields of applied sport psychology, psychotherapy, and consultation or coaching. The chapter reviews critical issues in the psychology of performance: standards and excellence, competition, emotion, temporal factors, audience, pressure, performance consequences, and performers’ developmental trajectories. Issues of appropriate preparation for performance psychology practice and performance psychologists’ roles and ethics are briefly addressed. In the various domains of performance psychology, clients’ attitudes toward consultants may vary. Further research, training, and practice implications are reviewed.
Human relationships play a fundamental role in shaping our psychological experiences. In sport and performance, researchers are beginning to recognize the significance of relationships with regards to the development of an array of contextual psychological responses, and it is becoming clear that the study of relationships in the context of human performance is worthy of attention. In this chapter, I briefly review the sport and performance literature that has explored athlete and performer relationships with peers, coaches, parents, and sport psychologists; and offer some conceptual pathways that can serve to further develop this important research area as it unfolds in sport and performance psychology. Specifically, I forward sets of ideas from attachment theory, transference, and actor–partner models as particularly useful frameworks within which to examine the sport relationship literature and attempt to illustrate where I see these ideas directing the sport and performance domains.