Dorothy Espelage and V. Paul Poteat
Research on bullying, social/relational aggression, and prejudice are reviewed with some guidance for ways in which schools can begin to prevent these phenomena and how counseling psychology can enter the very important conversation that will lead to making our schools safer. Bullying is verbal, physical, or social in nature, and is seen as repeated acts of aggression that differs from normal peer conflict. Relational aggression includes behaviors that damage relationships and feelings of acceptance, friendship, or group inclusion, and that seeks to exclude a person from making or maintaining one or more relationships. Prejudiced attitudes toward student’s racial/ethnic affiliation or sexual orientation are often used as a basis to exclude, harass, and humiliate. Recommendations are provided for school-based efforts to prevent these disruptive attitudes and behaviors.