Jonathan P. Schwartz, Michael Waldo, and Margaret Schwartz Moravec
Assessment is critical to understanding the outcomes and processes inherent in group counseling. However, assessment in groups is often ignored or attempted utilizing measures with poor psychometrics. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the various purposes of assessment in group counseling, followed by a summary of different types of assessment that may be used. Strengths and weaknesses of various assessments and research designs will also be discussed, along with implications for best practice.
Lynn S. Rapin
Group-counseling practitioners may not be aware of significant similarities and differences among philosophical foundations, professional association documents, and legal terms that guide practice. I will identify similarities and differences among them, highlight essential issues specific to group practice, and suggest future directions. In my discussion, it will be clear that ethical practice in group therapy is not a linear process. Rather, ethical conduct is a matrix relationship involving numerous variables. The following equation highlights the essential components: ethical behavior in group counseling = (moral and ethical development + professional ethics + core knowledge and skills + specialty/best-practice guidelines + legal parameters) × decision-making model(s). While the equation seems linear in its representation, it is not necessarily linear in application.
Jane L. Swanson
In this chapter, I present two broad topics: psychological measurement, or the process of assigning numbers to observations to quantify important characteristics of individuals, and the use of testing and assessment within counseling psychology. The first half of the chapter describes principles of measurement, including methods of scale and test development and evaluating the psychometric characteristics of tests (reliability and validity). The second half focuses on the use of testing and assessment, including models of assessment within counseling psychology, various types of commonly used assessment tools, computer-assisted and Internet-based assessment, gender and diversity issues, considerations in the selection and use of assessment in counseling, and professional and ethical issues.
Nancy E. Betz and Ruth E. Fassinger
This chapter reviews quantitative and qualitative methodologies most frequently used in counseling psychology research. We begin with a review of the paradigmatic bases and epistemological stances of quantitative and qualitative research, followed by overviews of both approaches to empirical research in counseling psychology. In these overviews, our goal is to provide a broad conceptual understanding of the “why” of these methods. Among the quantitative methods receiving attention are analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and discriminant analysis. We include discussion of such qualitative methods as grounded theory, narratology, phenomenology, ethnography, and participatory action research. Important general issues in designing qualitative studies are also discussed. The chapter concludes with a discussion of mixed methods in research and the importance of knowledge of both major approaches in order to maximally utilize findings from our rich and diverse counseling psychology literature.